virus

出典: meddic

ウイルス

WordNet   license wordnet

「a harmful or corrupting agency; "bigotry is a virus that must not be allowed to spread"; "the virus of jealousy is latent in everyone"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer; "a true virus cannot spread to another computer without human assistance"」
computer virus

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「ビールス,ろ過性病原体」

WordNet   license wordnet

「(virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts; many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein」

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2013/11/14 22:00:21」(JST)

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2017/08/25 09:14:31」(JST)

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英文文献

  • Using gold nanorods core/silver shell nanostructures as model material to probe biodistribution and toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in mice.
  • Meng J, Ji Y, Liu J, Cheng X, Guo H, Zhang W, Wu X, Xu H.Author information Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College , Beijing , P. R. China.AbstractAbstract The aim of this work was to probe the biodistribution and toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (NPs) with powerful anti-bacterial and anti-virus activities. For this purpose, novel silver NPs with gold nanorod (NR) core and silver shell (Au@Ag NRs) were developed and employed as a model material. The inner gold core provided an excellent internal reference for tracking the NRs in vivo. After subcutaneous injection of Au@Ag NRs, silver and gold contents in the subcutis and organs were examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at different time points within 28 days. Histological analysis, physiological function and complement faction 3 (C3) and 5a (C5a) measurement were performed over time to reveal the toxic effect of Au@Ag NRs in vivo. Experimental results showed that majority of the Au@Ag NRs remained in the injection site except for a small amount migrating into the lymph nodes. The silver shell was dissolved in the subcutaneous tissue and released silver ions rapidly, which resulted in detectable silver accumulation in most of the organs. The accumulated silver ions in the kidney not only interacted with the kidney cells membrane but also induced a rapid increase of complement fraction C3 followed by a significant consumption and C3a and C5a production significantly in the serum, which resulted in kidney oxidative damage and eventually led to the morphological changes and filtration function impairment of the glomerulus. The released silver ions also caused oxidative injury of subcutaneous tissue in the injection site.
  • Nanotoxicology.Nanotoxicology.2014 Sep;8:686-96. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2013.822593. Epub 2013 Jul 29.
  • Abstract The aim of this work was to probe the biodistribution and toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (NPs) with powerful anti-bacterial and anti-virus activities. For this purpose, novel silver NPs with gold nanorod (NR) core and silver shell (Au@Ag NRs) were developed and employed as a model ma
  • PMID 23837638
  • Epidemiology of Hantavirus infections in humans: A comprehensive, global overview.
  • Watson DC, Sargianou M, Papa A, Chra P, Starakis I, Panos G.Author information Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Patras University General Hospital , Patras , Greece .AbstractAbstract Hantaviruses comprise an emerging global threat for public health, affecting about 30 000 humans annually. Infection may lead to Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Americas and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Europe and Asia. Humans are spillover hosts, acquiring infection primarily through the inhalation of aerosolized excreta from infected rodents and insectivores. Risk factors for infection include involvement in outdoor activities, such as rural- and forest-related activities, peridomestic rodent presence, exposure to potentially infected dust and outdoor military training; prolonged, intimate contact with infected individuals promotes transmission of Andes virus, the only Hantavirus known to be transmitted from human-to-human. The total number of Hantavirus case reports is generally on the rise, as is the number of affected countries. Knowledge of the geographical distribution, regional incidence and associated risk factors of the disease are crucial for clinicians to suspect and diagnose infected individuals early on. Climatic, ecological and environmental changes are related to fluctuations in rodent populations, and subsequently to human epidemics. Thus, prevention may be enhanced by host-reservoir control and human exposure prophylaxis interventions, which likely have led to a dramatic reduction of human cases in China over the past decades; vaccination may also play a role in the future.
  • Critical reviews in microbiology.Crit Rev Microbiol.2014 Aug;40(3):261-72. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2013.783555. Epub 2013 Apr 22.
  • Abstract Hantaviruses comprise an emerging global threat for public health, affecting about 30 000 humans annually. Infection may lead to Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Americas and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Europe and Asia. Humans are spillover hosts, acquiri
  • PMID 23607444
  • Depuration kinetics of hepatitis A virus in clams.
  • Polo D1, Alvarez C2, Vilariño ML1, Longa A3, Romalde JL4.Author information 1Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, CIBUS-Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.2Instituto Tecnolóxico para o Control do Medio Mariño de Galicia (INTECMAR), 36611 Vilagarcía de Arousa, Spain.3Consello Regulador da Denominación de Orixe Protexida do Mexillón de Galicia, 36600 Vilagarcía de Arousa, Spain.4Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, CIBUS-Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Electronic address: jesus.romalde@usc.es.AbstractThe efficacy and dynamic of depuration for the removal of hepatitis A virus (HAV) contamination were evaluated under experimental conditions using Manila clams previously subjected to bioaccumulation with this virus. Five independent trials were assayed in a closed experimental system with a total volume of approximately 1750 l, using clam batches of 60 Kg. The reverse transcriptase-real time PCR (RT-qPCR) technique was utilized for viral quantification. Infectivity assays were conducted at the end of depuration. Although the final viral loads in shellfish after 7 days remained relatively high and still infectious, an average reduction in HAV levels of 1.44 log units (approx. 93.1%) was observed. This reduction showed a two-phase removal kinetic, with an initial rapid reduction of viruses during the first 72 h of depuration, with a 0.6 log units (69%) of average decrease in HAV RNA copies/g digestive tissue, and a subsequent stabilization with a slower depuration rate in the remaining days.
  • Food microbiology.Food Microbiol.2014 May;39:103-7. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2013.11.011. Epub 2013 Nov 28.
  • The efficacy and dynamic of depuration for the removal of hepatitis A virus (HAV) contamination were evaluated under experimental conditions using Manila clams previously subjected to bioaccumulation with this virus. Five independent trials were assayed in a closed experimental system with a total v
  • PMID 24387859
  • Foot and Mouth Disease virus-loaded fungal chitosan nanoparticles for intranasal administration: impact of formulation on physicochemical and immunological characteristics.
  • Tajdini F, Amini MA, Mokarram AR, Taghizadeh M, Azimi SM.Author information Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University , Karaj Branch, Karaj , Iran .AbstractAbstract Nasal vaccination is a promising, needle-free alternative route for parenteral vaccination. This study introduces a simple, scalable nasal vaccine delivery formulation for Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDv) using chitosan (CS) nanoparticles and assesses the potential of fungal CS for use as nanocarriers for mucosal vaccines. Fungal CS was extracted from fungal biomass and physiochemically characterized. FMDv-loaded CS nanoparticles, prepared using an ionic gelation technique, were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, loading efficiency and virus particle release. The immunogenicities of nasally applied FMDv-loaded fungal or commercial shrimp CS were compared with intraperitoneally administered fluid vaccine in guinea pigs. The nanoparticles had varied sizes (221.9-281.2 nm), positive electrical charge (+7 to +13 mV) and excellent antigen-loading capacity (93-97%). In vitro release studies revealed a biphasic virus particle release for all CS nanoparticles. Higher serum titers were developed with CS formulations than with free virus and were comparable with the titers for intraperitoneally administered fluid vaccine. Significantly higher IgA levels were found after the administration of nasal vaccine than after fluid vaccine or free virus. Overall, CS-FMDv nanoparticles stimulated humoral and mucosal immunity following intranasal administration. Fungal CS polymers were potent mucosal immunoadjuvants and showed promise as alternative sources of CS for mucosal vaccine formulations.
  • Pharmaceutical development and technology.Pharm Dev Technol.2014 May;19(3):333-41. doi: 10.3109/10837450.2013.784335. Epub 2013 Apr 16.
  • Abstract Nasal vaccination is a promising, needle-free alternative route for parenteral vaccination. This study introduces a simple, scalable nasal vaccine delivery formulation for Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDv) using chitosan (CS) nanoparticles and assesses the potential of fungal CS for use a
  • PMID 23590209

和文文献

  • 牛白血病ウイルス感染牛におけるリンパ系腫瘍の組織学的検討 (日本獣医師会学会学術誌) -- (獣医公衆衛生・野生動物・環境保全関連部門)
  • 萩原 晶代,斉藤 守弘,石川 義春 [他]
  • 日本獣医師会雑誌 = Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association 67(3), 199-203, 2014-03
  • NAID 40020015623
  • B型インフルエンザ罹患後に非痙攣性てんかん重積状態をきたした1例
  • 宇根 隼人,上原 平,立石 貴久 [他]
  • 臨床神経学 = Clinical neurology 54(3), 227-230, 2014-03
  • NAID 40020006568
  • コムギ縞萎縮病抵抗性品種'ゆめちから'の育成と抵抗性遺伝子の由来
  • 西尾 善太
  • 植物防疫 68(3), 134-137,図巻頭1p, 2014-03
  • NAID 40020005056
  • HIV感染児の治療決定に関する倫理的課題
  • 前田 ひとみ
  • 先端倫理研究 : 熊本大学倫理学研究室紀要 8, 111-120, 2014-03
  • … Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection has been dramatically improved by development of antiretroviral therapy (ART&). …
  • NAID 110009687684

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VIRUS (ヴァイラス)のメンバー経歴から誕生日、今までの音源やその作詞作曲編曲情報まで幅広く紹介してます。 ... デモテープ 発売日 その他 収録曲 VIRUS.DEMO DIVE DIE HARD I WANNA HOLD YOU JULIET 異民族
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★リンクテーブル★
リンク元100Cases 16」「ウイルス」「viral」「animal virus
拡張検索respiratory syncytial virus vaccine」「deltaretrovirus infection

100Cases 16」

  [★]

☆case16 膝の痛み
glossary
indigestion 消化障害消化不良
症例
80歳 男性
主訴:左膝の痛みと腫脹
現病歴:左膝の痛みを2日前から認めた。膝は発熱腫脹しており、動かすと疼痛を生じる。時々胸焼けと消化不良が見られる。6ヶ月前のhealth checkで、高血圧(172/102mmHg)と血中クレアチニンが高い(正常高値)こと以外正常といわれた。その4週間数回血圧測定したが、高値継続したため、2.5mg bendrofluamethizide(UK)/ベンドロフルメチアジドbendroflumethiazide(US)で治療開始した。最近血圧は138/84 mmHgであった。
喫煙歴:なし。
飲酒歴:一週間に平均4unit。
既往歴股関節中程度(mild)の変形性関節症
家族歴:特記なし
服薬歴:アセトアミノフェン(股関節疼痛に対して)
身体所見 examination
 血圧 142/86mmHg体温37.5℃。脈拍88/分。grade 2 hypertensive retinopathy(高血圧症性網膜症)。心血管系呼吸器系検査場異常なし。手にDIPにヘバーデン結節なし。
 左膝が発熱腫脹している。関節内に液、patellar tap陽性。90℃以上膝関節屈曲させると痛みを生じる。右の膝関節正常に見える。
検査 investigation
 生化学白血球増多、ESR上昇、尿素高値グルコース高値
 単純X線:関節間隙やや狭小。それ以外に異常は認めない。
problem list
 #1 左膝の痛み
 #2 胸焼け
 #3 消化不良
 #4 高血圧
 #5 クレアチニン正常高値
 #6 股関節変形性リウマチ
 #7 高血圧性網膜症
■考え方
 ・関節痛鑑別診断を考える。
 ・VINDICATEで考えてみてもよいでしょう。
 ・関節痛頻度としては 外傷慢性疾患(OAなど)>膠原病脊椎疾患悪性腫瘍
関節痛の鑑別疾患
DIF 282
V Vascular 血友病 hemophilia, 壊血病 scurvy, 無菌性骨壊死 aseptic bone necrosis (Osgood-Schlatter diseaseとか)
I Inflammatory 淋疾 gonorrhea, ライム病 lyme disease, 黄色ブドウ球菌 Staphylococcus, 連鎖球菌 Streptococcus, 結核 tuberculosis, 梅毒 syphilis, 風疹 rubella, 単純ヘルペス herpes simplex, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, サイトメガロウイルス cytomegalovirus
N Neoplastic disorders 骨原性肉腫 osteogenic sarcoma, 巨細胞腫 giant cell tumors
D Degenerative disorders degenerative joint disease or 変形性関節症 osteoarthritis
I Intoxication 痛風 gout (uric acid), 偽痛風 pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate), ループス症候群 lupus syndrome of hydralazine (Apresoline) and procainamide, gout syndrome of diuretics
C Congenital and acquired malformations bring to mind the joint deformities of tabes dorsalis and syringomyelia and congenital dislocation of the hip. Alkaptonuria is also considered here.
A Autoimmune indicates (多い)関節リウマチ RA (可能性)血清病 serum sickness, 全身性エリテマトーデス lupus erythematosus, リウマチrheumatic fever, ライター症候群 Reiter syndrome, 潰瘍性大腸炎 ulcerative colitis, クローン病=限局性回腸炎 regional ileitis, 乾癬性関節psoriatic arthritis (老人であり得る)リウマチ性多発筋痛症 polymyalgia rheumatica
T Trauma 外傷性滑膜炎 traumatic synovitis, tear or rupture of the collateral or cruciate ligaments, 亜脱臼 subluxation or laceration of the meniscus (semilunar cartilage), 脱臼 dislocation of the joint or patella, a 捻挫 sprain of the joint, and fracture of the bones of the joint.
E Endcrine 先端肥大症 acromegaly, 閉経 menopause, 糖尿病 diabetes mellitus
■答え
 骨格筋系-関節炎-単関節炎-急性単関節
 痛風 尿酸 → 発熱ESR↑、白血球
 偽痛風 ピロリンカルシウム
 高齢女性でチアジド利尿薬の使用により痛風誘発されやすい。特に腎機能低下糖尿病の人はこのリスクが高まる。
■(BSTからの知識「)循環器領域での利尿薬
心不全治療において、循環血漿量を減らし、心臓前負荷軽減する。
利尿薬は高尿酸血症を起こす。(けど、心不全治療において高尿酸血症になったからといって痛風発症している患者はみたことない)
電解質異常を起こしやすいので、血液生化学検査でモニタして注意する。たとえば低Kで不整脈リスクが高まる。
チアジド系の利尿薬血糖を上げるし、尿酸を上げる
長期の使用で腎機能を低下させる
initial plan
 Dx 1. 関節液の吸引関節液の一般検査生化学検査、培養検査
    ・白血球増加していれば急性炎症性であることを示す。
    ・偏光顕微鏡関節液を検鏡する。
     ・尿酸結晶:針状結晶negatively birefringent
     ・ピロリンカルシウム結晶positively birefringent
 Tx 1. 関節液の吸引炎症が軽度改善
   2. NSAIDによる疼痛管理
   3. PPINSAID潰瘍予防するため
   4. ACE inhibitor導入


ウイルス」

  [★]

virus
ウイルス粒子 virus particleビリオン virion
微生物学抗ウイルス薬国試に出がちなウイルス

ウイルス一覧

感染経路による分類 SMB.374

呼吸器粘膜の局所感染 ライノウイルス
アデノウイルス
コロナウイルス
RSウイルス
インフルエンザウイルス
全身感染 ムンプスウイルス
麻疹ウイルス
風疹ウイルス
ハンタウイルス
水痘・帯状疱疹ウイルス
ラッサウイルス
天然痘ウイルス

学名

目(order, -virales), 科(family, -viridae), 亜科(subfamily, -virinae), 属(genus, -virus), 種(species)

増殖過程

  • 吸着 absorption
  • 侵入 penetration
  • 脱殻 uncoating
  • ゲノムの複製 replication、遺伝子発現 transcription
  • ウイルス粒子の組み立て assembly
  • 放出 release

感染の分類

持続時間

  • 急性感染
  • 慢性感染

ゲノム

  • 一本鎖RNA(-)をゲノムとするウイルスはウイルス粒子内にRNA依存性RNA合成酵素を有する。





viral」

  [★]

  • adj.
  • ウイルス性の、ウイルスの
virallyvirogenicvirus

WordNet   license wordnet

「relating to or caused by a virus; "viral infection"」

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「ウィルスの;ウィルスが原因の」


animal virus」

  [★]

virus


respiratory syncytial virus vaccine」

  [★]

RSウイルスワクチン呼吸器多核体ウイルスワクチン呼吸器合胞体ウイルスワクチン

RSV vaccine


deltaretrovirus infection」

  [★]

BLV infectionHTLV infection


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