smoking

出典: meddic

喫煙

WordNet   license wordnet

「emitting smoke in great volume; "a smoking fireplace"」

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「煙ること / 喫煙」

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2013/02/11 18:00:15」(JST)

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2015/11/24 23:08:48」(JST)

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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2016/06/28 17:47:53」(JST)

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英文文献

  • Anthropometric, medical history and lifestyle risk factors for myeloproliferative neoplasms in The Iowa Women's Health Study cohort.
  • Leal AD, Thompson CA, Wang AH, Vierkant RA, Habermann TM, Ross JA, Mesa RA, Virnig BA, Cerhan JR.Author information Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.AbstractClassical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are composed of essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and myelofibrosis (MF), the etiology of which is largely unknown. We investigated the role of anthropometric, medical and lifestyle factors with risk of MPN in a prospective cohort of 27,370 women aged 55-69 years at enrollment. After >250,000 person-years of follow-up, 257 cases of MPN were identified (172 ET, 64 PV, 21 MF). Risk factor profiles were mostly unique for the two most common types, ET and PV. ET was associated with energy balance factors including body mass index (RR = 1.52 for >29.3 vs. <23.4 kg/m(2) ; p-trend = 0.042), physical activity (RR = 0.66 for high vs. low; p-trend = 0.04) and adult onset diabetes (RR = 1.82; p = 0.009), while PV was not. PV was associated with current smoking (RR = 2.83; p-trend = 0.016), while ET was not. Regular use of aspirin was associated with lower risk of ET (RR = 0.68; p = 0.017). These results broadly held in multivariate models. Our results suggest distinct etiologies for these MPN subtypes and raise mechanistic hypotheses related to obesity-related inflammatory pathways for ET and smoking-related carcinogenic pathways for PV. Regular aspirin use may lower risk for ET.
  • International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer.Int J Cancer.2014 Apr 1;134(7):1741-50. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28492. Epub 2013 Oct 15.
  • Classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are composed of essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and myelofibrosis (MF), the etiology of which is largely unknown. We investigated the role of anthropometric, medical and lifestyle factors with risk of MPN in a prospective cohort of
  • PMID 24114627
  • Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in women with anorexia nervosa.
  • Karamanis G, Skalkidou A, Tsakonas G, Brandt L, Ekbom A, Ekselius L, Papadopoulos FC.Author information Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.AbstractCaloric restriction in animals is an effective way to reduce carcinogenesis. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is considered a model of extreme caloric restriction in humans. The aim of our study was to assess cancer incidence and mortality in women with AN. A total of 6,009 women with at least one inpatient treatment for AN during the period 1973-2003 were included in the study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in cancer incidence compared to women in the general population. At a statistically significant or borderline significant level, a higher incidence for lung cancer and cancer of lymphoid, hematopoietic and related tissue was observed along with a reduced breast cancer incidence. Women with AN had twice as high mortality from cancer in general, and more specifically from melanoma, cancers of genital organs and cancers of ill-defined, secondary and unspecified sites. The increased lung cancer incidence may be due to smoking habits among women with AN. The worse prognosis with higher mortality from melanoma, cancers of genital organs and cancers of ill-defined, secondary and unspecified sites may be explained by AN-specific attitudes toward seeking medical care, adherence to treatment or worse biological precondition due to starvation and cachexia.
  • International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer.Int J Cancer.2014 Apr 1;134(7):1751-7. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28495. Epub 2013 Oct 8.
  • Caloric restriction in animals is an effective way to reduce carcinogenesis. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is considered a model of extreme caloric restriction in humans. The aim of our study was to assess cancer incidence and mortality in women with AN. A total of 6,009 women with at least one inpatient tr
  • PMID 24114497
  • The role of the antileukoprotease SLPI in smoking-induced human papillomavirus-independent head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Quabius ES, Möller P, Haag J, Pfannenschmidt S, Hedderich J, Görögh T, Röcken C, Hoffmann M.Author information Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, D-24105, Kiel, Germany; Institute of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, D-24105, Kiel, Germany.AbstractRecently, we showed that increased SLPI levels prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and metastasis in smoking-induced, non-HPV-driven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we focus on the role of SLPI in non-HPV-driven HNSCC, investigating tumor tissue and non-neoplastic mucosa from the same patients and from non-HNSCC patients. Gene and protein expression of SLPI and gene expression of annexin 2 (a SLPI receptor), nicotine receptor (α7AChR) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) were analyzed in HNSCC patients (20 smokers; 16 nonsmokers). SLPI-results were correlated with the patients' HPV status. Non-neoplastic mucosa of HNSCC patients and normal mucosa from non-HNSCC individuals (18 smokers; 20 nonsmokers) was analyzed for the same parameters. Tissue of the inferior turbinate (n = 10) was incubated with nicotine for analysis of the same genes. SLPI gene expression in tumor tissue was 109.26 ± 23.08 times higher in smokers versus nonsmokers. Non-neoplastic mucosa of smokers showed also higher SLPI gene expression (10.49 ± 1.89-fold non-HNSCC; 18.02 ± 3.93-fold HNSCC patients). Annexin 2 gene expression was also increased in smokers. SLPI data were corroborated by immunohistochemistry. A nicotine dependent correlation between SLPI and annexin 2 gene expression (r(2) = 0.15, p < 0.001) was shown ex vivo. Nicotine and smoking increased α7AChR and AhR gene expression. Five patients, showing no/low SLPI expression, were HPV16-positive. A significant correlation between smoking and SLPI expression in tumors and to our knowledge for the first time in mucosa of HNSCC and non-HNSCC patients was established. Together with the finding that all patients with HPV infection showed no/low SLPI expression, these data support our intriguing hypothesis that smoking induced upregulated SLPI prevents HPV infections.
  • International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer.Int J Cancer.2014 Mar 15;134(6):1323-34. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28462. Epub 2013 Sep 23.
  • Recently, we showed that increased SLPI levels prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and metastasis in smoking-induced, non-HPV-driven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we focus on the role of SLPI in non-HPV-driven HNSCC, investigating tumor tissue and non-neoplastic muco
  • PMID 23996702

和文文献

  • 環境的要因 (特集 関節リウマチ(RA) : 診断と治療の進歩) -- (病因)
  • 川人 豊
  • 日本内科学会雑誌 101(10), 2824-2829, 2012-10-10
  • NAID 40019466995
  • 医療従事者の禁煙支援行動の背景要因と禁煙啓発講演会の及ぼす影響
  • 江藤 敏治,青石 恵子
  • 医学と生物学 = Medicine and biology 156(10), 708-714, 2012-10
  • NAID 40019464287

関連リンク

5 〈人・ものが〉犯罪[不正, 不倫など]が行われたことが明白な, 有罪の証拠となる. smoking gun(煙の出ている銃)から. 提供元:「プログレッシブ英和中辞典」 凡例 「smoking」の前の言葉 smókestàck smóke trèe Smokey ...
スモーカーがゆったり寛いで喫煙を楽しめるスモーキングカフェブリケ。 お洒落な喫煙具そしてこだわりのコーヒーでお寛ぎのひと時を演出します。パイプや葉巻などの講習会を定期的に開催し、たばこ文化の啓蒙や ...
ここは、タバコに関するWEB SITEです。 未成年者の喫煙は法律で禁じられています。 Cookies must be enabled to view this site. The site you are about to enter contains smoking-related material. I'm not old enough to smoke I ...

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★リンクテーブル★
リンク元喫煙
拡張検索smoking jacket」「smoking gun

喫煙」

  [★]

smoking, cigarette smoking?
禁煙ブリンクマン指数タバコ

喫煙率

日本(OECD Health Data 2009)

  • 男性:39.5%(2008):低下
  • 女性:12.9%(2008):60歳以上低下。20-30歳代の若年層で増加傾向

アメリカ、イギリス、ドイツ

  • 男女差は少なく20%-30%

ロシア

  • 日本と同じ傾向

年齢別年次推移

[display]http://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/tobacco/toukei/kituen.html
  • 20-30歳代の女性で平成初期より増加して横ばいである。

参考

  • 1. たばこと健康に関する情報ページ|厚生労働省
[display]http://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/tobacco/main.html

男女別喫煙率

  • WHO地域別喫煙率
http://www.health-net.or.jp/tobacco/oversea/ov890000.html
  • 男女別喫煙率の国際比較
http://www2.ttcn.ne.jp/honkawa/2214.html
  • OECD Health Data 2009 - Frequently Requested Data
http://www.oecd.org/document/16/0,3343,en_2649_34631_2085200_1_1_1_37407,00.html
  • OECD Health Data 2009
http://www.irdes.fr/EcoSante/DownLoad/OECDHealthData_FrequentlyRequestedData.xls (OECDHealthData2009.xls)

喫煙者のヘルスメンテナンス

  • 15年以内の喫煙, 30箱/年以上の継続的な喫煙 → 毎年の胸部CT施行が勧められる
  • 禁煙して15年以上経っている場合には推奨する必要はない。


国試




smoking jacket」

  [★]

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「家庭のくつろぎ着[喫煙のときに着たことから]」

smoking gun」

  [★]

WordNet   license wordnet

「indisputable evidence (especially of a crime)」


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