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- 1. 小児における糸球体腎炎の病因と原因の概要 overview of the pathogenesis and causes of glomerulonephritis in children
- 2. 石綿肺症 asbestosis
- 3. 鎌状ヘモグロビン多量体：構造と機能特性 sickle hemoglobin polymer structure and functional properties
- 4. 正常な状態における胸水のターンオーバー機序 mechanisms of pleural liquid turnover in the normal state
- 5. ライノウイルス感染の疫学、臨床症状、および病因 epidemiology clinical manifestations and pathogenesis of rhinovirus infections
- Development and evaluation of oral osmotic pump of butorphanol tartrate.
- Shah B1, Raichandani Y, Misra A.Author information 1Drug Delivery Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, TIFAC Centre of Relevance and Excellence in NDDS, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda , Vadodara , India.AbstractButorphanol is potent analgesic useful in pain management. However, because of high first-pass metabolism butorphanol is not available in market as oral dosage form. Drugs that undergo extensive first-pass metabolism can be delivered orally if protected in the stomach, and proximal small intestine. An oral controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) was designed to deliver butorphanol tartrate that can maintain therapeutic blood concentration up to 24 h. The target release profile for extended release formulation was calculated by Wagner Nelson de-convolution using published immediate release blood concentration data for oral route. Composition of the core and coating were optimized using USFDA approved ingredients by evaluation of the drug release. Drug release from the developed system was inversely proportional to the weight gain and directly related to the level of pore former. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the formation of pores in the coating membrane on contact with water which lead to drug to release. Kinetic models were applied to drug release data to establish the drug release mechanism. The developed osmotic system effectively delivers selected drug at a predetermined rate for extended period.
- Pharmaceutical development and technology.Pharm Dev Technol.2014 Nov;19(7):868-80. doi: 10.3109/10837450.2013.836223. Epub 2013 Sep 30.
- Butorphanol is potent analgesic useful in pain management. However, because of high first-pass metabolism butorphanol is not available in market as oral dosage form. Drugs that undergo extensive first-pass metabolism can be delivered orally if protected in the stomach, and proximal small intestine.
- PMID 24079361
- Dissolution properties, solid-state transformation and polymorphic crystallization: progesterone case study.
- Araya-Sibaja AM1, Paulino AS, Rauber GS, Campos CE, Cardoso SG, Monti GA, Heredia V, Bianco I, Beltrano D, Cuffini SL.Author information 1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina , Florianópolis , Brasil .AbstractProgesterone is a natural steroid hormone and a poor soluble drug which presents two polymorphs (forms 1 and 2). Different methods to obtain form 2 were tested and a complete solid-state characterization of both polymorphs (forms 1 and 2) was conducted. X-ray powder diffraction, hot stage microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, dispersive Raman, (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy techniques and intrinsic dissolution rates (IDR) were applied to investigate physical-chemical and dissolution properties of these two polymorphs. Form 2 was obtained from diluted solutions and from melting after cooling at room temperature. Form 1 was obtained from concentrated solutions and, a mixture of both polymorphs was crystallized from intermediate solutions. The crystal habit was not a distinctive characteristic of each polymorph. The effect of mechanical stress was evaluated in the metastable polymorph (form 2). We observed that grinding form 2 produced seeds of form 1 that induced the transformation of form 2 into form 1 at high temperature. The polymorphic quantification from XRD patterns of ground samples were carried out by the Rietveld method. After grinding and at room temperature conditions (∼25 °C), it was observed the transformation of 17% of form 2 into form 1 in 10 days.
- Pharmaceutical development and technology.Pharm Dev Technol.2014 Nov;19(7):779-88. doi: 10.3109/10837450.2013.829096. Epub 2013 Sep 13.
- Progesterone is a natural steroid hormone and a poor soluble drug which presents two polymorphs (forms 1 and 2). Different methods to obtain form 2 were tested and a complete solid-state characterization of both polymorphs (forms 1 and 2) was conducted. X-ray powder diffraction, hot stage microscopy
- PMID 24032356
- Oral, short-term exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley rat: focus on reproductive and endocrine systems and spleen.
- Tassinari R1, Cubadda F, Moracci G, Aureli F, D'Amato M, Valeri M, De Berardis B, Raggi A, Mantovani A, Passeri D, Rossi M, Maranghi F.Author information 1Istituto Superiore di Sanità , Rome , Italy.AbstractThe study explored possible reproductive and endocrine effects of short-term (5 days) oral exposure to anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (0, 1, 2 mg/kg body weight per day) in rat. Nanoparticles were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy, and their presence in spleen, a target organ for bioaccumulation, was investigated by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and SEM/energy-dispersive X-ray. Analyses included serum hormone levels (testosterone, 17-β-estradiol and triiodothyronine) and histopathology of thyroid, adrenals, ovary, uterus, testis and spleen. Increased total Ti tissue levels were found in spleen and ovaries. Sex-related histological alterations were observed at both dose levels in thyroid, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex (females) and ovarian granulosa, without general toxicity. Altered thyroid function was indicated by reduced T3 (males). Testosterone levels increased in high-dose males and decreased in females. In the spleen of treated animals TiO2 aggregates and increased white pulp (high-dose females) were detected, even though Ti tissue levels remained low reflecting the low doses and the short exposure time. Our findings prompt to comprehensively assess endocrine and reproductive effects in the safety evaluation of nanomaterials.
- Nanotoxicology.Nanotoxicology.2014 Sep;8(6):654-62. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2013.822114. Epub 2013 Jul 25.
- The study explored possible reproductive and endocrine effects of short-term (5 days) oral exposure to anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (0, 1, 2 mg/kg body weight per day) in rat. Nanoparticles were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy, and their presenc
- PMID 23834344
- DSC and TMA studies on freezing and thawing gelation of galactomannan polysaccharide
- Iijima Mika,Hatakeyama Tatsuko,Hatakeyama Hyoe
- Thermochimica Acta 532, 83-87, 2012-03-20
- … In this study, effect of thermal history on gelation was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA). … Morphological observation of freeze-dried gels was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). …
- NAID 120003087766
- Direct observation of crystal defects in an organic molecular crystals of copper hexachlorophthalocyanine by STEM-EELS
- Haruta Mitsutaka,Kurata Hiroki
- Scientific Reports 2, 2012-02-07
- … Observation of crystal defects in organic thin films has previously been performed at rather low resolution by conventional transmission electron microscopy based on phase-contrast imaging. …
- NAID 120003796719
- 走査型電子顕微鏡 (Scanning Electron Microscope; SEM)は観察対象に電子線を あて、そこから反射してきた電子（または二次 ... また、両者の特徴を合わせ持つ走査型 透過電子顕微鏡 (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope; STEM) も近年注目 ...
- 23 Jul 2012 ... The scanning electron microscope (SEM) uses a focused beam of high-energy electrons to generate a variety of signals at the surface of solid specimens. The signals that derive from electron-sample interactions ...
- scanning electron microscopy、scanning electron microscope、SEM
- comb form.