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- 1. 進行性核上性麻痺（PSP） progressive supranuclear palsy psp
- 2. 眼振の概要 overview of nystagmus
- 3. 小児における核上性注視異常 supranuclear disorders of gaze in children
- 4. 大脳皮質基底核変性症 corticobasal degeneration
- 5. ハンチントン病：臨床的特徴および診断 huntington disease clinical features and diagnosis
- Blinking and driving: the influence of saccades and cognitive workload.
- Cardona G, Quevedo N.Author information Department of Optics and Optometry, University Vision Centre Research Group, Terrassa School of Optics and Optometry, Technical University of Catalonia , Catalonia , Spain.AbstractAbstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the joint influence of cognitive demands and large amplitude saccades on spontaneous blink rate. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study and instructed to follow a 60-minute real-life driving circuit while a video camera recorded ocular movements and blinking. Five different complexity levels were predefined in terms of driving difficulty and traffic intensity, that is, cognitive workload. Five one-minute segments were selected for each complexity level in each driving trial, whereupon spontaneous blink rate and horizontal saccades were monitored. Saccades were classified according to their amplitude and blink-saccade pairs were recorded. Results: Albeit showing a high inter-subject variability, spontaneous blink rate and saccades were consistent within the same complexity level. At different complexity levels, no statistically significant difference in spontaneous blink rate was encountered, with an average of 20.3 ± 1.6 blinks/minute (mean ± SD). The number of large amplitude gaze shifts increased with the level of complexity (F = 15.403; p < 0.001). An average of 87.5% of large amplitude saccades were accompanied by a blink, and this percentage was similar for all complexity levels, that is, the number of blink-saccade pairs increased at higher complexity levels (F = 20.597; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In a complex, dynamic visual setting, spontaneous blinking accompanying large amplitude saccades may help in counteracting the reduction in blink rate associated with high cognitive demands.
- Current eye research.Curr Eye Res.2014 Mar;39(3):239-44. doi: 10.3109/02713683.2013.841256. Epub 2013 Oct 21.
- Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the joint influence of cognitive demands and large amplitude saccades on spontaneous blink rate. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study and instructed to follow a 60-minute real-life driving circuit while
- PMID 24143937
- The subthalamic nucleus influences visuospatial attention in humans.
- Schmalbach B, Günther V, Raethjen J, Wailke S, Falk D, Deuschl G, Witt K.Author information Christian Albrecht University, Kiel, Germany.AbstractSpatial attention is a lateralized feature of the human brain. Whereas the role of cortical areas of the nondominant hemisphere on spatial attention has been investigated in detail, the impact of the BG, and more precisely the subthalamic nucleus, on signs and symptoms of spatial attention is not well understood. Here we used unilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus to reversibly, specifically, and intraindividually modify the neuronal BG outflow and its consequences on signs and symptoms of visuospatial attention in patients suffering from Parkinson disease. We tested 13 patients with Parkinson disease and chronic deep brain stimulation in three stimulation settings: unilateral right and left deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus as well as bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. In all three stimulation settings, the patients viewed a set of pictures while an eye-tracker system recorded eye movements. During the exploration of the visual stimuli, we analyzed the time spent in each visual hemispace, as well as the number, duration, amplitude, peak velocity, acceleration peak, and speed of saccades. In the unilateral left-sided stimulation setting, patients show a shorter ipsilateral exploration time of the extrapersonal space, whereas number, duration, and speed of saccades did not differ between the different stimulation settings. These results demonstrated reduced visuospatial attention toward the side contralateral to the right subthalamic nucleus that was not being stimulated in a unilateral left-sided stimulation. Turning on the right stimulator, the reduced visuospatial attention vanished. These results support the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in modulating spatial attention. Therefore, the subthalamic nucleus is part of the subcortical network that subserves spatial attention.
- Journal of cognitive neuroscience.J Cogn Neurosci.2014 Mar;26(3):543-50. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00502. Epub 2013 Oct 21.
- Spatial attention is a lateralized feature of the human brain. Whereas the role of cortical areas of the nondominant hemisphere on spatial attention has been investigated in detail, the impact of the BG, and more precisely the subthalamic nucleus, on signs and symptoms of spatial attention is not we
- PMID 24144249
- Two-dimensional spatial tuning for saccades in human parieto-frontal cortex.
- Leoné FT1, Toni I2, Medendorp WP2.Author information 1Radboud University Nijmegen, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, 6525 HR Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgRadboud University Nijmegen, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, 6525 HR Nijmegen, The Netherlands.AbstractSaccades in the frontoparallel plane are targeted at two-dimensional (2D) locations, defined by direction and amplitude. Macaque neurophysiology has shown that these dimensions are jointly represented in single intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and frontal eye fields (FEF) neurons, constituting multiple maps of 2D saccade space. Human fMRI has shown that the direction of the saccade is topographically represented across large neuronal groups. However, it is unknown whether both direction and amplitude are separable dimensions at the voxel level and whether these tuning variables are organized in large-scale topographic maps. We used fMRI to address these issues in subjects performing an instructed-delay saccade task to 18 locations (6 directions, 3 amplitudes). Singular value decomposition was applied to the corresponding response field of each voxel, providing an index of the separability into direction and amplitude tuning. Our findings show that saccade location tuning is composed of separable direction and amplitude components within voxels across the parieto-frontal network. In both IPS and FEF there were amplitude gradients and reversals of direction tuning across voxels, with a medio-lateral gradient of decreasing saccade amplitude along the IPS. These findings reveal the 2D cortical organization of saccade space within and across voxels and hold great potential for the study of other sensorimotor systems.
- NeuroImage.Neuroimage.2014 Feb 15;87:476-89. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.09.067. Epub 2013 Oct 4.
- Saccades in the frontoparallel plane are targeted at two-dimensional (2D) locations, defined by direction and amplitude. Macaque neurophysiology has shown that these dimensions are jointly represented in single intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and frontal eye fields (FEF) neurons, constituting multiple ma
- PMID 24099846
- 疋田 真一,板岡 毅,小野 貴彦,小林 康秀,齊藤 充行
- 電子情報通信学会論文誌. D, 情報・システム J96-D(4), 1058-1067, 2013-04-01
- 実時間で入眠予兆を検出するため,高速道路を走行する映像を提示したときの閉眼時間とサッカードの特性及び視覚刺激に対する反応時間について調べた.その結果,視覚刺激に対する反応時間のパフォーマンス低下前に過去30秒間の累積閉眼時間は増加すること,サッカードの平均ピーク速度は閉眼時間の増加に先行して減少傾向を示すことが分かった.10秒間隔で計算される平均ピーク速度の最小値の時間推移から覚醒水準評価を試みた …
- NAID 110009596354
- 疋田 真一,板岡 毅,小野 貴彦 [他]
- 電子情報通信学会論文誌. D, 情報・システム 96(4), 1058-1067, 2013-04
- NAID 40019672791
- 武澤 実穂,星野 聡子
- 奈良女子大学スポーツ科学研究 15, 47-58, 2013-03-31
- … Eye movements and the time they need to decide wererecorded.As a result, subjects divided into 4 groups according to characteristic of eye movements pattern asdeciding. … First group is using saccadic eye movements. … Second is using combination subordinate eyemovements with saccadic eye movements. … Third is using irregular eye movements. …
- NAID 110009577303
- forum Join the Word of the Day Mailing List For webmasters TheFreeDictionary Google Bing? Word / Article Starts with Ends with Text ... saccadic eye movement [sakad′ik] an extremely fast voluntary movement of the eyes, allowing ...
- The Gap Effect Saslow (Saslow, 1967) first reported an important result showing that latency could be substantially affected by visual events at the start location for the eye movement. He recorded latencies in the standard situation ...
- saccadic eye movement
- saccadic eye movement
- social movement, front