全文を閲覧するには購読必要です。 To read the full text you will need to subscribe.
- 1. 腕神経叢症候群 brachial plexus syndromes
- Soldier load carriage: historical, physiological, biomechanical, and medical aspects.
- Knapik JJ1, Reynolds KL, Harman E.Author information 1Directorate of Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance, U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010, USA.AbstractThis study reviews historical and biomedical aspects of soldier load carriage. Before the 18th century, foot soldiers seldom carried more than 15 kg while on the march, but loads have progressively risen since then. This load increase is presumably due to the weight of weapons and equipment that incorporate new technologies to increase protection, firepower, communications, and mobility. Research shows that locating the load center of mass as close as possible to the body center of mass results in the lowest energy cost and tends to keep the body in an upright position similar to unloaded walking. Loads carried on other parts of the body result in higher energy expenditures: each kilogram added to the foot increases energy expenditure 7% to 10%; each kilogram added to the thigh increases energy expenditure 4%. Hip belts on rucksacks should be used whenever possible as they reduce pressure on the shoulders and increase comfort. Low or mid-back load placement might be preferable on uneven terrain but high load placement may be best for even terrain. In some tactical situations, combat load carts can be used, and these can considerably reduce energy expenditure and improve performance. Physical training that includes aerobic exercise, resistance training targeted at specific muscle groups, and regular road marching can considerably improve road marching speed and efficiency. The energy cost of walking with backpack loads increases progressively with increases in weight carried, body mass, walking speed, or grade; type of terrain also influences energy cost. Predictive equations have been developed, but these may not be accurate for prolonged load carriage. Common injuries associated with prolonged load carriage include foot blisters, stress fractures, back strains, metatarsalgia, rucksack palsy, and knee pain. Load carriage can be facilitated by lightening loads, improving load distribution, optimizing load-carriage equipment, and taking preventive action to reduce the incidence of injury.
- Military medicine.Mil Med.2004 Jan;169(1):45-56.
- This study reviews historical and biomedical aspects of soldier load carriage. Before the 18th century, foot soldiers seldom carried more than 15 kg while on the march, but loads have progressively risen since then. This load increase is presumably due to the weight of weapons and equipment that inc
- PMID 14964502
- [Compression syndromes of the axillary nerve and the suprascapular nerve].
- Millesi-Eberhard D1, König B, Millesi H.Author information 1Klinischen Abteilung für Plastische und Wiederherstellende Chirurgie der Chirurgischen Universitätsklinik Wien.AbstractWe report on seven patients with altogether four paralyses of the axillary and six paralyses of the suprascapular nerve without a singular trauma. In one patient, the paralysis of the axillary nerve developed spontaneously over night after a period of habitual dislocations of the shoulder joint. Another patient developed a paralysis of the suprascapular nerve after prolonged wearing of a rucksack. Three of the remaining five patients developed both an axillary and suprascapular paresis without any preceeding trauma or irritation. In two further patients, an isolated suprascapular paralysis developed without trauma. An analysis of the intraoperative findings in these five patients shows in all cases adhesions of the nerve with the surrounding tissues at the site of the suprascapular notch respectively the quadrilateral space. In all three cases of axillary nerve paralysis there was in addition a narrow quadrilateral space. However only in three of five suprascapular nerve lesions there was a narrow suprascapular notch. In the two remaining cases adhesions alone had caused the paralysis and produced a serpentine deformity of the nerve. It is concluded that inflammatory processes cause the paralysis and the adhesions. Compression in the narrow space and fibrous changes are responsible for maintaining the paralysis after the inflammation has subsided. Macroscopically unchanged nerves underwent external neurolysis. With fibrous changes an epineuriotomy and with more pronounced changes an epineuriectomy were performed. The results are discussed.
- Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, plastische Chirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Handchirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mikrochirurgie der Peripheren Nerven und Gefässe : Organ der Vereinigung der Deutschen Plastischen Chirurgen.Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir.1999 Sep;31(5):311-6.
- We report on seven patients with altogether four paralyses of the axillary and six paralyses of the suprascapular nerve without a singular trauma. In one patient, the paralysis of the axillary nerve developed spontaneously over night after a period of habitual dislocations of the shoulder joint. Ano
- PMID 10566132
- Abstract In recent years there has been an increase in the use of backpacks and rucksacks by nonmilitary ary personnel. An estimated 3 million individuals engage in hiking and mountain climbing, and countless others ...
- Experience And Reason—Briefly Recorded: Rucksack Palsy A. David Rothner, Asa Wilbourn, and Robert D. Mercer Pediatrics 1975; 56: 5 822-824 Abstract Full Text ... This Article Pediatrics Vol. 56 No ...
- pal up, chum up