- v. (prodding, prodded)
- 突き刺す、突く、突っつく。(人を～へと)し向ける、促す、せっつく(sb into (doing) sth)
- incite, egg on
出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』「2015/12/02 17:12:17」(JST)[Wiki en表示]
- Impact of Swine reproductive technologies on pig and global food production.
- Knox RV.Author information Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, 360 Animal Sciences Laboratory, 1207 West Gregory Drive MC-630, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA, email@example.com.AbstractReproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies are in widespread use for commercial pork operations [Riesenbeck, Reprod Domest Anim 46:1-3, 2011] while others are in limited use in specific segments of the industry [Knox, Reprod Domest Anim 46:4-6, 2011]. Significant changes in the efficiency of pork production have occurred as a direct result of the use of reproductive technologies that were intended to improve the transfer of genes important for food production [Gerrits et al., Theriogenology 63:283-299, 2005]. While some technologies focused on the efficiency of gene transfer, others addressed fertility and labor issues. Among livestock species, pig reproductive efficiency appears to have achieved exceptionally high rates of performance (PigCHAMP 2011) [Benchmark 2011, Ames, IA, 12-16]. From the maternal side, this includes pigs born per litter, farrowing rate, as well as litters per sow per year. On the male side, boar fertility, sperm production, and sows served per sire have improved as well [Knox et al., Theriogenology, 70:1202-1208, 2008]. These shifts in the efficiency of swine fertility have resulted in the modern pig as one of the most efficient livestock species for global food production. These reproductive changes have predominantly occurred in developed countries, but data suggests transfer and adoption of these in developing countries as well (FAO STAT 2009; FAS 2006) [World pig meat production: food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2009; FAS, 2006) Worldwide Pork Production, 2006]. Technological advancements in swine reproduction have had profound effects on industry structure, production, efficiency, quality, and profitability. In all cases, the adoption of these technologies has aided in the creation of a sustainable supply of safe and affordable pork for consumers around the world [den Hartog, Adv Pork Prod 15:17-24, 2004].
- Advances in experimental medicine and biology.Adv Exp Med Biol.2014;752:131-60. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8887-3_7.
- Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficien
- PMID 24170358
- Incorporation of genetic technologies associated with applied reproductive technologies to enhance world food production.
- Cushman RA, McDaneld TG, Kuehn LA, Snelling WM, Nonneman D.Author information Reproduction Research Unit, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, State Spur 18D, Clay Center, NE, 68933-0166, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.AbstractAnimal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science. Artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. Multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MOET) provides some ability to increase the genetic influence of the maternal line as well. The addition of genetic technologies to this paradigm allows for improved methods of selecting sires and dams carrying the best genes for production and yield of edible products and resistance to diseases and parasites. However, decreasing the number of influential parents within a population also increases the risk of propagating a recessive gene that could negatively impact the species (Reprod Domest Anim 44:792-796, 2009; BMC Genomics 11:337, 2010). Furthermore, antagonistic genotypic relationships between production traits and fertility (Anim Prod Sci 49:399-412, 2009; Anim Genet 43:442-446, 2012) suggest that care must be taken to ensure that increasing the frequency of genes with a positive influence on production does not negatively impact the fertility of the replacement females entering the herd.
- Advances in experimental medicine and biology.Adv Exp Med Biol.2014;752:77-96. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8887-3_4.
- Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science. Artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. Multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MO
- PMID 24170355
- Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for Mammalian farm animals.
- Hansen PJ.Author information Department of Animal Sciences, D.H. Barron Reproductive and Perinatal Biology Research Program, and Genetics Institute, University of Florida, 110910, Gainesville, FL, 32611-0910, USA, Hansen@animal.ufl.edu.AbstractReproduction in domestic animals is under control by man and the technologies developed to facilitate that control have a major impact on the efficiency of food production. Reproduction is an energy-intensive process. In beef cattle, for example, over 50 % of the total feed consumption required to produce a unit of meat protein is consumed by the dam of the meat animal (Anim Prod 27:367-379, 1978). Sows are responsible for about 20 % of the total feed needed to produce animals for slaughter (Adv Pork Prod 19:223-237, 2008). Accordingly, energy input to produce food from animal sources is reduced by increasing number of offspring per unit time a breeding female is in the herd. Using beef cattle as an example again, life-cycle efficiency for production of weaned calves is positively related to early age at puberty and short calving intervals (J Anim Sci 57:852-866, 1983). Reproductive technologies also dictate the strategies that can be used to select animals genetically for traits that improve production. Of critical importance has been artificial insemination (AI) (Anim Reprod Sci 62:143-172, 2000; Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 38:411-441, 2007; Reprod Domest Anim 43:379-385, 2008; J Dairy Sci 92:5814-5833, 2009) and, as will be outlined in this chapter, emerging technologies offer additional opportunities for improvements in genetic selection. Given the central role of reproduction as a determinant of production efficiency and in genetic selection, improvements in reproductive technologies will be crucial to meeting the challenges created by the anticipated increases in world population (from seven billion people in 2011 to an anticipated nine billion by 2050; World population prospects: the 2010 revision, highlights and advance tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.220, New York) and by difficulties in livestock production wrought by climate change (SAT eJournal 4:1-23, 2007).The purpose of this chapter will be to highlight current and emerging reproductive technologies that have the potential to improve efficiency of livestock production. The focus will be on technologies that manipulate male and female gametes as well as the stem cells from which they are derived and the preimplantation embryo. While technology is crucial to other interventions in the reproductive process like control of seasonal breeding, hormonal regulation of ovulation, estrous cyclicity and pregnancy establishment, feeding to optimize reproduction, minimizing environmental stress, and selection of genes controlling reproduction, these will not be considered here. Rather the reader is directed to other chapters in this volume as well as some reviews on other aspects of artificial manipulation of reproduction (Reprod Fertil Dev 24:258-266, 2011; Reprod Domest Anim 43:40-47, 2008; Reprod Domest Anim 43:122-128, 2008; Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 66:87-102, 2009; Comprehensive biotechnology, Amsterdam, pp 477-485; Dairy production medicine, Chichester, pp 153-163; Theriogenology 76:1619-1631, 2011; Theriogenology 76:1568-1582, 2011; Theriogenology 77:1-11, 2012). Given the large number of mammalian species used for production of products useful for man and the diversity in their biology and management, the review will not be comprehensive but instead will use results from species that are most illustrative of the opportunities generated by assisted reproductive technologies.
- Advances in experimental medicine and biology.Adv Exp Med Biol.2014;752:1-22. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8887-3_1.
- Reproduction in domestic animals is under control by man and the technologies developed to facilitate that control have a major impact on the efficiency of food production. Reproduction is an energy-intensive process. In beef cattle, for example, over 50 % of the total feed consumption required to p
- PMID 24170352
- Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Pentahydroxyscirpene, a Trichothecene Fusarium Mycotoxin.
- Fruhmann P, Mikula H, Wiesenberger G, Varga E, Lumpi D, Stöger B, Häubl G, Lemmens M, Berthiller F, Krska R, Adam G, Hametner C, Fröhlich J.Author information Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology (VUT) , Getreidemarkt 9/163, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.AbstractPentahydroxyscirpene, a novel trichothecene-type compound, was isolated from Fusarium-inoculated rice. The structure of pentahydroxyscirpene was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The conformation in solution was determined by NOESY experiments supported by quantum chemical calculations. In vitro toxicity tests showed that pentahydroxyscirpene inhibits protein synthesis as do other trichothecenes.
- Journal of natural products.J Nat Prod.2013 Dec 24. [Epub ahead of print]
- Pentahydroxyscirpene, a novel trichothecene-type compound, was isolated from Fusarium-inoculated rice. The structure of pentahydroxyscirpene was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The conformation in solution was determined by NOESY experiments supported b
- PMID 24367932
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|リンク元||「thrust」「CYP2B1」「cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1」「突き」|
|拡張検索||「egg-producing」「sound reproduction」「ectopic parathyroid hormone producing tumor」「ectopic ACTH producing tumor」|
- cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1、prod
- comb form.