- Invited review: A commentary on predictive cheese yield formulas.
- Emmons DB1, Modler HW.Author information 1Guelph Food Research Centre, Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada N1G 5C9. firstname.lastname@example.orgAbstractPredictive cheese yield formulas have evolved from one based only on casein and fat in 1895. Refinements have included moisture and salt in cheese and whey solids as separate factors, paracasein instead of casein, and exclusion of whey solids from moisture associated with cheese protein. The General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas were tested critically using yield and composition of milk, whey, and cheese from 22 vats of Cheddar cheese. The General formula is based on the sum of cheese components: fat, protein, moisture, salt, whey solids free of fat and protein, as well as milk salts associated with paracasein. The testing yielded unexpected revelations. It was startling that the sum of components in cheese was <100%; the mean was 99.51% (N × 6.31). The mean predicted yield was only 99.17% as a percentage of actual yields (PY%AY); PY%AY is a useful term for comparisons of yields among vats. The PY%AY correlated positively with the sum of components (SofC) in cheese. The apparent low estimation of SofC led to the idea of adjusting upwards, for each vat, the 5 measured components in the formula by the observed SofC, as a fraction. The mean of the adjusted predicted yields as percentages of actual yields was 99.99%. The adjusted forms of the General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas gave predicted yields equal to the actual yields. It was apparent that unadjusted yield formulas did not accurately predict yield; however, unadjusted PY%AY can be useful as a control tool for analyses of cheese and milk. It was unexpected that total milk protein in the adjusted General formula gave the same predicted yields as casein and paracasein, indicating that casein or paracasein may not always be necessary for successful yield prediction. The use of constants for recovery of fat and protein in the adjusted General formula gave adjusted predicted yields equal to actual yields, indicating that analyses of cheese for protein and fat may not always be necessary for yield prediction. Composition of cheese was estimated using a predictive formula; actual yield was needed for estimation of composition. Adjusted formulas are recommended for estimating target yields and cheese yield efficiency. Constants for solute exclusion, protein-associated milk salts, and whey solids could be used and reduced the complexity of the General formula. Normalization of fat recovery increased variability of predicted yields.
- Journal of dairy science.J Dairy Sci.2010 Dec;93(12):5517-37. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-3262.
- Predictive cheese yield formulas have evolved from one based only on casein and fat in 1895. Refinements have included moisture and salt in cheese and whey solids as separate factors, paracasein instead of casein, and exclusion of whey solids from moisture associated with cheese protein. The General
- PMID 21094725
- Effect of paracasein degradation on sensory properties of Gouda cheese.
- Cichosz G1, Zalecka A, Kornacki M.Author information 1University of Warmia and Mazury, Faculty of Food Science, Institute of Dairy Science and Technology Development, 10-957 Olsztyn, u. Oczapowskiego 7. Poland. email@example.comAbstractThe relation between the sensory quality of Gouda cheese and the extent of paracasein degradation, i. e., the content of soluble N, peptide N, amino acid N and amine N, was studied. The above-mentioned parameters of paracasein degradation differently determined the sensory properties of Gouda cheese. The flavour of cheese after 6-week ripening depended to the largest extent on the content of amine N and soluble N. The effect of the content of peptide N on cheese flavour was smaller but statistically significant. Also the smell of Gouda cheese was to the largest extent correlated to the content of amine N. A dependence between smell and the content of peptide N was found only in the cheeses after 4-week ripening. None of the sensory quality parameters of the examined cheeses depended on the content of amino acid N.
- Die Nahrung.Nahrung.2003 Dec;47(6):383-7.
- The relation between the sensory quality of Gouda cheese and the extent of paracasein degradation, i. e., the content of soluble N, peptide N, amino acid N and amine N, was studied. The above-mentioned parameters of paracasein degradation differently determined the sensory properties of Gouda cheese
- PMID 14727764
- 江澤 真,松本 加奈子,小谷 泉美 [他],神田 亜希子,神山 卓文,松山 惇,清澤 功
- 日本畜産學會報 = The Japanese journal of zootechnical science 72(7), J41-J48, 2001-02-25
- … The molar ratio of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) bound to the paracasein of Mozzarella cheese has been found to be less than 1.0, but that of natural cheeses was more than 1.4. … In order to clarify the low of Ca/Pi ratio in the paracasein of MC, the sediments or curds were obtained by centrifuging of bovine milk or the coagulated milk after treatment with starter and rennet under various conditions of MC preparation, and then dissolved in 5M urea. …
- NAID 10025834280
- 江澤 真,浅野 悠子,六井 洋子 [他],松山 惇,清澤 功
- 日本食品保蔵科学会誌 = Food preservation science 26(5), 273-279, 2000-10-31
- … The amounts of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) bound to casein or paracasein from the curds at each process were determined to obtain their molar ratios. … Those in paracasein after cooking the coagulated milk with starter and rennet were 16.2 and 10.3 mg respectively. … After resting, addition of 2% NaCl and kneading of the curds, the Ca/Pi ratio of paracasein was much more lowered to 1.06. …
- NAID 10013005558
- Paracasein definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now! Added to Favorites Dictionary Thesaurus Word Dynamo Quotes Reference Translator Spanish Log In ...
- paracasein /para·ca·sein/ (-ka´se-in) the chemical product of the action of rennin on casein. par·a·ca·sein (păr′ə-kā′sēn′, -sē-ĭn) n. A compound produced by the action of rennin upon casein. paracasein [par″ah-ka´se-in] the chemical ...