natural voice

出典: meddic

UpToDate Contents

全文を閲覧するには購読必要です。 To read the full text you will need to subscribe.

英文文献

  • Explaining the high voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: Evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models.
  • Trainor LJ1, Marie C2, Bruce IC3, Bidelman GM4.Author information 1Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; McMaster Institute for Music and the Mind, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address: ljt@mcmaster.ca.2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; McMaster Institute for Music and the Mind, Hamilton, ON, Canada.3McMaster Institute for Music and the Mind, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.4Institute for Intelligent Systems, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA; School of Communication Sciences & Disorders, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA.AbstractNatural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human ERP and psychophysical music listening studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled <Music: A window into the hearing brain>.
  • Hearing research.Hear Res.2014 Feb;308:60-70. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2013.07.014. Epub 2013 Aug 3.
  • Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or s
  • PMID 23916754
  • National-level differences in the adoption of environmental health technologies: a cross-border comparison from Benin and Togo.
  • Wendland KJ, Pattanayak SK, Sills EO.Author information Department of Conservation Social Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA, Stanford School of Public Policy; Nicholas School of the Environment; Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA and Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8008, USA.AbstractEnvironmental health problems such as malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhoea and malnutrition pose very high burdens on the poor rural people in much of the tropics. Recent research on key interventions-the adoption and use of relatively cheap and effective environmental health technologies-has focused primarily on the influence of demand-side household-level drivers. Relatively few studies of the promotion and use of these technologies have considered the role of contextual factors such as governance, the enabling environment and national policies because of the challenges of cross-country comparisons. We exploit a natural experimental setting by comparing household adoption across the Benin-Togo national border that splits the Tamberma Valley in West Africa. Households across the border share the same culture, ethnicity, weather, physiographic features, livelihoods and infrastructure; however, they are located in countries at virtually opposite ends of the institutional spectrum of democratic elections, voice and accountability, effective governance and corruption. Binary choice models and rigorous non-parametric matching estimators confirm that households in Benin are more likely than households in Togo to plant soybeans, build improved cookstoves and purchase mosquito nets, ceteris paribus. Although we cannot identify the exact mechanism for the large and significant national-level differences in technology adoption, our findings suggest that contextual institutional factors can be more important than household characteristics for technology adoption.
  • Health policy and planning.Health Policy Plan.2014 Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Environmental health problems such as malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhoea and malnutrition pose very high burdens on the poor rural people in much of the tropics. Recent research on key interventions-the adoption and use of relatively cheap and effective environmental health technologies-has
  • PMID 24436179

和文文献

関連リンク

関連画像


押しても画像が表示されない場合はサーバが混雑しています。2週間ほどあけて、再度押下してください。


★リンクテーブル★
関連記事natural」「voice」「voiced」「voicing

natural」

  [★]

  • adj.
  • 自然な、天然の、当然の、もっともな
justifiablelogicalnativenaturallynatureproperreasonablereasonablyspontaneousspontaneously

WordNet   license wordnet

「related by blood; not adopted」

WordNet   license wordnet

「(craps) a first roll of 7 or 11 that immediately wins the stake」

WordNet   license wordnet

「a notation cancelling a previous sharp or flat」
cancel

WordNet   license wordnet

「someone regarded as certain to succeed; "he''s a natural for the job"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「being talented through inherited qualities; "a natural leader"; "a born musician"; "an innate talent"」
born, innate

WordNet   license wordnet

「unthinking; prompted by (or as if by) instinct; "a cat''s natural aversion to water"; "offering to help was as instinctive as breathing"」
instinctive

WordNet   license wordnet

「(used especially of commodities) being unprocessed or manufactured using only simple or minimal processes; "natural yogurt"; "natural produce"; "raw wool"; "raw sugar"; "bales of rude cotton"」
raw, rude

WordNet   license wordnet

「(of a musical note) being neither raised nor lowered by one chromatic semitone; "a natural scale"; "B natural"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「existing in or in conformity with nature or the observable world; neither supernatural nor magical; "a perfectly natural explanation"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「existing in or produced by nature; not artificial or imitation; "a natural pearl"; "natural gas"; "natural silk"; "natural blonde hair"; "a natural sweetener"; "natural fertilizers"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「functioning or occurring in a normal way; lacking abnormalities or deficiencies; "it''s the natural thing to happen"; "natural immunity"; "a grandparent''s natural affection for a grandchild"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「in accordance with nature; relating to or concerning nature; "a very natural development"; "our natural environment"; "natural science"; "natural resources"; "natural cliffs"; "natural phenomena"」

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「『自然のままの』,自然にある,自然が作る / 自然に関する / 『当然の』,あたりまえの / 『生まれつきの』(inborn) / 生き写しの,真に迫った / 気どらない,飾らない / (音階が)本位の / (音階の)本位音;本位記号 / 《単数形で》《話》(…の)生来の達人,(…に)最初からうってつけの人《+『for』(『as』)+『名』》」

voice」

  [★]


WordNet   license wordnet

「give voice to; "He voiced his concern"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「(linguistics) the grammatical relation (active or passive) of the grammatical subject of a verb to the action that the verb denotes」

WordNet   license wordnet

「a means or agency by which something is expressed or communicated; "the voice of the law"; "the Times is not the voice of New York"; "conservatism has many voices"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「the distinctive quality or pitch or condition of a person''s speech; "A shrill voice sounded behind us"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「the sound made by the vibration of vocal folds modified by the resonance of the vocal tract; "a singer takes good care of his voice"; "the giraffe cannot make any vocalizations"」
vocalization, vocalisation, vocalism, phonation, vox

WordNet   license wordnet

「(metonymy) a singer; "he wanted to hear trained voices sing it"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「a sound suggestive of a vocal utterance; "the noisy voice of the waterfall"; "the incessant voices of the artillery"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「something suggestive of speech in being a medium of expression; "the wee small voice of conscience"; "the voice of experience"; "he said his voices told him to do it"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「the ability to speak; "he lost his voice"」

WordNet   license wordnet

「utter with vibrating vocal chords」
sound, vocalize, vocalise

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「〈U〉(人間の)『声』 / 〈U〉声を出す力,物を言う力 / 〈C〉〈U〉声の質,声の状態(調子) / 〈C〉(人の声を思わせる)(…の)音《+of+名》 / 〈C〉(人の声にたとえた)(…の)音《+of+名》 / 〈U〉〈C〉『発言権』,選択権,投票権 / 〈U〉表現,表明;意見 / 〈C〉(声楽の)声 / 〈C〉(文法で)態 / 〈気持ちなど〉‘を'言い表す,口に出す / 〈音〉‘を'有声音で発音する」


voiced」

  [★]

WordNet   license wordnet

「produced with vibration of the vocal cords; "a frequently voiced opinion"; "voiced consonants such as `b'' and `g'' and `z''";」
sonant, soft

PrepTutorEJDIC   license prepejdic

「言い表された,口に出された / 有声音の,有声の」

voicing」

  [★]

WordNet   license wordnet

「the act of adjusting an organ pipe (or wind instrument) so that it conforms to the standards of tone and pitch and color」



★コメント★

[メモ入力エリア]
※コメント5000文字まで
ニックネーム:
コメント:




表示
個人用ツール


  meddic.jp

リンク
連絡