出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』「2015/11/07 23:46:00」(JST)[Wiki en表示]
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- 1. 鼻の先天異常 congenital anomalies of the nose
- 2. 小児における鼻の外傷および骨折 nasal trauma and fractures in children
- 3. 鼻閉塞の臨床症状、診断、および治療 clinical presentation diagnosis and treatment of nasal obstruction
- 4. 鼻症状の原因：概要 etiologies of nasal symptoms an overview
- 5. 小児における感冒：治療および予防 the common cold in children treatment and prevention
- MON PUSHLIVE TEST A primitive placoderm sheds light on the origin of the jawed vertebrate face.
- Dupret V1, Sanchez S2, Goujet D3, Tafforeau P4, Ahlberg PE1.Author information 1Uppsala University, Department of Organismal Biology, Subdepartment of Evolution and Development, Norbyvägen 18A, SE-752 36, Uppsala, Sweden.21] Uppsala University, Department of Organismal Biology, Subdepartment of Evolution and Development, Norbyvägen 18A, SE-752 36, Uppsala, Sweden  European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex, France.3Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Département Histoire de la Terre, Paléontologie, 8 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France.4European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex, France.AbstractExtant vertebrates form two clades, the jawless Cyclostomata (lampreys and hagfishes) and the jawed Gnathostomata (all other vertebrates), with contrasting facial architectures. These arise during development from just a few key differences in the growth patterns of the cranial primordia: notably, the nasal sacs and hypophysis originate from a single placode in cyclostomes but from separate placodes in gnathostomes, and infraoptic ectomesenchyme migrates forward either side of the single placode in cyclostomes but between the placodes in gnathostomes. Fossil stem gnathostomes preserve cranial anatomies rich in landmarks that provide proxies for developmental processes and allow the transition from jawless to jawed vertebrates to be broken down into evolutionary steps. Here we use propagation phase contrast synchrotron microtomography to image the cranial anatomy of the primitive placoderm (jawed stem gnathostome) Romundina, and show that it combines jawed vertebrate architecture with cranial and cerebral proportions resembling those of cyclostomes and the galeaspid (jawless stem gnathostome) Shuyu. This combination seems to be primitive for jawed vertebrates, and suggests a decoupling between ectomesenchymal growth trajectory, ectomesenchymal proliferation, and cerebral shape change during the origin of gnathostomes.
- Nature.Nature.2014 Feb 12. doi: 10.1038/nature12980_MON_PUSHLIVE_TEST. [Epub ahead of print]
- Extant vertebrates form two clades, the jawless Cyclostomata (lampreys and hagfishes) and the jawed Gnathostomata (all other vertebrates), with contrasting facial architectures. These arise during development from just a few key differences in the growth patterns of the cranial primordia: notably, t
- PMID 24522536
- A primitive placoderm sheds light on the origin of the jawed vertebrate face.
- Nature.Nature.2014 Feb 12. doi: 10.1038/nature12980. [Epub ahead of print]
- PMID 24522530
- CXC chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) affects the migration of GnRH neurons by regulating CXCL12 availability.
- Memi F, Abe P, Cariboni A, MacKay F, Parnavelas JG, Stumm R.Author information Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller University, 07747 Jena, Germany, and Department of Immunology, Monash University, Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct (AMREP), Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.AbstractGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are neuroendocrine cells, located in the hypothalamus, that play an essential role in mammalian reproduction. These neurons originate in the nasal placode and migrate during embryonic development, in association with olfactory/vomeronasal nerves, first in the nose, then through the cribriform plate to enter the forebrain, before settling in the hypothalamus. One of the molecules required for their early migration in the nose is the chemokine CXCL12, which is expressed in the embryonic nasal mesenchyme in an increasing ventral to dorsal gradient, presumably guiding GnRH neurons toward the forebrain. Mice lacking CXCR4, the receptor for CXCL12, exhibit defective GnRH cell movement and a significant reduction in their number, suggesting that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling is important in the migration and survival of these neurons. Here, we investigated the role of the more recently identified second CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, in GnRH neuron development. We demonstrate that CXCR7 is expressed along the migratory path of GnRH neurons in the nasal cavity and, although not expressed by GnRH neurons, it affects their migration as indicated by the ectopic accumulation of these cells in the nasal compartment in CXCR7(-/-) mice. Absence of CXCR7 caused abnormal accumulation of CXCL12-RFP at CXCR4-positive sites in the nasal area of CXCL12-RFP-transgenic mice and excessive CXCL12-dependent intracellular clustering of CXCR4 in GnRH neurons, suggesting internalization. These findings imply that CXCR7 regulates CXCL12 availability by acting as a scavenger along the migratory path of GnRH neurons and, thus, influences the migration of these cells in a noncell-autonomous manner.
- The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.J Neurosci.2013 Oct 30;33(44):17527-37. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0857-13.2013.
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are neuroendocrine cells, located in the hypothalamus, that play an essential role in mammalian reproduction. These neurons originate in the nasal placode and migrate during embryonic development, in association with olfactory/vomeronasal nerves, first i
- PMID 24174685
- 小山 幸子
- Aroma research 12(3), 288-291, 2011-00-00
- NAID 40018970775
- 谷口 和美,谷口 和之
- The journal of veterinary medical science 70(1), 57-64, 2008-01-25
- シリアン・ハムスターの嗅上皮と鋤鼻器の胎生期および生後における分化の詳細を光顕および電顕により検索した.胎生10日に鼻板は嵌入して鼻窩を形成した.鼻窩上皮の表層には多数の有糸分裂像が認められた.胎生11日には鼻窩内側壁から鋤鼻器が分離した.胎生13日では有糸分裂像が嗅上皮の中層から基底層に認められたのに対し,鋤鼻器感覚上皮では浅層,中層,基底層に亘って認められた.生後1日では嗅上皮の分化はほぼ終了 …
- NAID 110006546638
- Embryonic and Postnatal Differentiation of Olfactory Epithelium and Vomeronasal Organ in the Syrian Hamster
- TANIGUCHI Kazumi,TANIGUCHI Kazuyuki
- Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 70(1), 57-64, 2008
- … At 10 days of gestation, the nasal placode is invaginated to form the olfactory pit on either side at the rostral end of the embryo. … The significance of mitotic figures are discussed in the course of development with special reference to the origin of the nasal placode from the central nervous system.<br> …
- NAID 130000447243
- nasal placode, an oval area of thickened ectoderm on either ventrolateral surface of the head of the early embryo, constituting the first indication of the olfactory organ. placode a platelike structure, especially a thickening of the ...
- placode [′pla‚kōd] (embryology) A platelike epithelial thickening, frequently marking, in the embryo, the anlage of an organ or part. Placode the rudiment of a sense organ or ganglion in humans, vertebrates, and some invertebrates.
- nasal bone, os nasale