出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』「2013/09/21 00:55:15」(JST)[Wiki en表示]
|Classification and external resources|
Micrograph of a heart with fibrosis (yellow) and amyloidosis (brown). Movat's stain.
Cardiovascular disease (also called heart disease) is a class of diseases that involve the heart, the blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins) or both.
Cardiovascular disease refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, principally cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse but atherosclerosis and/or hypertension are the most common. Additionally, with aging come a number of physiological and morphological changes that alter cardiovascular function and lead to subsequently increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in healthy asymptomatic individuals.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths worldwide, though since the 1970s, cardiovascular mortality rates have declined in many high-income countries. At the same time, cardiovascular deaths and disease have increased at a fast rate in low- and middle-income countries. Although cardiovascular disease usually affects older adults, the antecedents of cardiovascular disease, notably atherosclerosis, begin in early life, making primary prevention efforts necessary from childhood. There is therefore increased emphasis on preventing atherosclerosis by modifying risk factors, such as healthy eating, exercise, and avoidance of smoking tobacco.
- 1 Types
- 2 Risk factors
- 2.1 Age
- 2.2 Sex
- 2.3 Air pollution
- 3 Pathophysiology
- 4 Screening
- 5 Prevention
- 5.1 Diet
- 5.2 Supplements
- 5.3 Medication
- 6 Management
- 7 Epidemiology
- 8 Research
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Types[edit source | edit]
- Coronary artery disease ( also known as coronary heart disease and ischaemic heart disease)
- Cardiomyopathy - diseases of cardiac muscle
- Hypertensive heart disease - diseases of the heart secondary to high blood pressure
- Heart failure
- Cor pulmonale - a failure at the right side of the heart with respiratory system involvement
- Cardiac dysrhythmias - abnormalities of heart rhythm
- Inflammatory heart disease
- Endocarditis – inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. The structures most commonly involved are the heart valves.
- Inflammatory cardiomegaly
- Myocarditis – inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart.
- Valvular heart disease
- Cerebrovascular disease - disease of blood vessels that supplies to the brain such as stroke
- Peripheral arterial disease - disease of blood vessels that supplies to the arms and legs
- Congenital heart disease - heart structure malformations existing at birth
- Rheumatic heart disease - heart muscles and valves damage due to rheumatic fever caused by streptococcal bacteria infections
Risk factors[edit source | edit]
Evidence suggests a number of risk factors for heart disease: age, gender, high blood pressure, high serum cholesterol levels, tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sugar consumption, family history, obesity, lack of physical activity, psychosocial factors, diabetes mellitus, air pollution. While the individual contribution of each risk factor varies between different communities or ethnic groups the consistency of the overall contribution of these risk factors to epidemiological studies is remarkably strong. Some of these risk factors, such as age, gender or family history, are immutable; however, many important cardiovascular risk factors are modifiable by lifestyle change, drug treatment or social change.
Age[edit source | edit]
Age is by far the most important risk factor in developing cardiovascular diseases, with approximately a tripling of risk with each decade of life. It is estimated that 87 percent of people who die of coronary heart disease are 60 and older. At the same time, the risk of stroke doubles every decade after age 55.
Multiple explanations have been proposed to explain why age increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of them is related to serum cholesterol level. In most populations, the serum total cholesterol level increases as age increases. In men, this increase levels off around age 45 to 50 years. In women, the increase continues sharply until age 60 to 65 years.
Aging is also associated with changes in the mechanical and structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance and may subsequently lead to coronary artery disease.
Sex[edit source | edit]
Men are at greater risk of heart disease than pre-menopausal women. Once past menopause, it has been argued that a woman's risk is similar to a man's although more recent data from the WHO and UN disputes this.
Among middle-aged people, coronary heart disease is 2 to 5 times more common in men than in women. In a study done by the World Health Organization, sex contributes to approximately 40% of the variation in the sex ratios of coronary heart disease mortality. Another study reports similar results that gender difference explains nearly half of the risk associated with cardiovascular diseases One of the proposed explanations for the gender difference in cardiovascular disease is hormonal difference. Among women, estrogen is the predominant sex hormone. Estrogen may have protective effects through glucose metabolism and hemostatic system, and it may have a direct effect on improving endothelial cell function. The production of estrogen decreases after menopause, and may change the female lipid metabolism toward a more atherogenic form by decreasing the HDL cholesterol level and by increasing LDL and total cholesterol levels. Women who have experienced early menopause, either naturally or because they have had a hysterectomy, are twice as likely to develop heart disease as women of the same age group who have not yet gone through menopause.
Among men and women, there are differences in body weight, height, body fat distribution, heart rate, stroke volume, and arterial compliance. In the very elderly, age related large artery pulsatility and stiffness is more pronounced in women. This may be caused by the smaller body size and arterial dimensions independent of menopause.
Air pollution[edit source | edit]
Particulate matter has been studied for its short- and long-term exposure effects on cardiovascular disease. Currently, PM2.5 is the major focus, in which gradients are used to determine CVD risk. For every 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 long-term exposure, there was an estimated 8-18% CVD mortality risk. Women had a higher relative risk (RR) (1.42) for PM2.5 induced coronary artery disease than men (0.90) did. Overall, long-term PM exposure increased rate of atherosclerosis and inflammation. In regards to short-term exposure (2 hours), every 25 μg/m3 of PM2.5 resulted in a 48% increase of CVD mortality risk. Additionally, after only 5 days of exposure, a rise in systolic (2.8 mmHg) and diastolic (2.7 mmHg) blood pressure occurred for every 10.5 μg/m3 of PM2.5. Other research has implicated PM2.5 in irregular heart rhythm, reduced heart rate variability (decreased vagal tone), and most notably heart failure. PM2.5 is also linked to carotid artery thickening and increased risk of acute myocardial infarction.
Pathophysiology[edit source | edit]
Population based studies show that atherosclerosis the major precursor of cardiovascular disease begins in childhood. The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth Study demonstrated that intimal lesions appear in all the aortas and more than half of the right coronary arteries of youths aged 7–9 years.
This is extremely important considering that 1 in 3 people will die from complications attributable to atherosclerosis. In order to stem the tide education and awareness that cardiovascular disease poses the greatest threat and measures to prevent or reverse this disease must be taken.
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are often linked to cardiovascular disease, as are a history of chronic kidney disease and hypercholesterolaemia. In fact, cardiovascular disease is the most life threatening of the diabetic complications and diabetics are two- to four-fold more likely to die of cardiovascular-related causes than nondiabetics.
Screening[edit source | edit]
Screening ECGs (either at rest or with exercise) are not recommended in those without symptoms who are at low risk. In those at higher risk the evidence for screening with ECGs is inconclusive.
Some biomarkers may add to conventional cardiovascular risk factors in predicting the risk of future cardiovascular disease; however, the clinical value of some biomarkers is still questionable. Currently, biomarkers which may reflect a higher risk of cardiovascular disease include:
- Coronary artery calcification
- Carotid intima-media thickness
- Carotid total plaque area 
- Higher fibrinogen and PAI-1 blood concentrations
- Elevated homocysteine
- Elevated blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine
- Inflammation as measured by C-reactive protein
- Elevated Low-density lipoprotein-p
- Elevated blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (also known as B-type) (BNP)
Prevention[edit source | edit]
Currently practiced measures to prevent cardiovascular disease include:
- A low-fat, high-fiber diet including whole grains and plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables (at least five portions a day)
- Tobacco cessation and avoidance of second-hand smoke;
- Limit alcohol consumption to the recommended daily limits; consumption of 1-2 standard alcoholic drinks per day may reduce risk by 30% However excessive alcohol intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
- Lower blood pressures, if elevated;
- Decrease body fat (BMI) if overweight or obese;
- Increase daily activity to 30 minutes of vigorous exercise per day at least five times per week;
- Reduce sugar consumptions;
- Decrease psychosocial stress. Stress however plays a relatively minor role in hypertension. Specific relaxation therapies are not supported by the evidence.
For adults without a known diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or cardiovascular disease, routine counseling to advise them to improve their diet and increase their physical activity has not been found to significantly alter behaviour, and thus is not recommended.
Diet[edit source | edit]
Evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet improves cardiovascular outcomes. This may be by "about 30 percent" in those at high risk. There is also evidence that a Mediterranean diet may be more effective than a low-fat diet in bringing about long-term changes to cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., lower cholesterol level and blood pressure). In clinical trials the DASH diet (high in nuts, fish, fruits and vegetables, and low in sweets, red meat and fat) has been shown to reduce blood pressure, lower total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol  and improve metabolic syndrome; but the long term benefits outside the context of a clinical trial have been questioned.
Total fat intake does not appear to be an important risk factor. A diet high in trans fatty acids however does appear to increase rates of cardiovascular disease.
Worldwide, dietary guidelines recommend a reduction in saturated fat. There however is some questions around the effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular disease in the medical literature. A 2012 Cochrane review found suggestive evidence of a small benefit from replacing dietary saturated fat by unsaturated fat. A 2013 meta analysis concludes that substitution with omega 6 linoleic acid (a type of unsaturated fat) may increase cardiovascular risk. Replacement of saturated fats with carbohydrates does not change or may increase risk. Benefits from replacement with polyunsaturated fat appears greatest however supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids (a type of polysaturated fat) does not appear have an effect.
The effect of a low salt diet is unclear. A Cochrane review concluded that any benefit in either hypertensive or normal tensive people is small if present. Additionally, the review suggested a low salt diet may be harmful in those with congestive heart failure. However, the review was criticized particularly for not excluding a trial in heart failure where people had low salt and water levels due to diuretics. When this study is left out the rest of the trials show a trend to benefit.
Another review of dietary salt concluded that there is strong evidence that high dietary salt intake increases blood pressure and worsens hypertension, and that it increases the number of cardiovascular disease events; the latter happens both through the increased blood pressure and, quite likely, through other mechanisms. Moderate evidence was found that high salt intake increased cardiovascular mortality; and some evidence was found for an increase in overall mortality, strokes and left-ventricular hypertrophy.
Supplements[edit source | edit]
While a healthy diet is beneficial, the effect of antioxidant supplementation (vitamin E, vitamin C, etc.) or vitamins generally has not been shown to improve protection against cardiovascular disease and in some cases may possibly result in harm. Niacin, a type of vitamin B3, may be an exception with a modest decrease in the risk of cardiovascular events in those at high risk. Magnesium supplementation lowers high blood pressure in a dose dependent manner. Magnesium therapy is recommended for patients with ventricular arrhythmia associated with torsade de pointes who present with long QT syndrome as well as for the treatment of patients with digoxin intoxication-induced arrhythmias. Results from an observational study conducted in the general Japanese population demonstrated that lower serum magnesium levels were associated with a greater average intima-media thickness and the risk of at least two carotid plaques. Evidence to support omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is lacking.
Medication[edit source | edit]
Aspirin has not been found to be of benefit overall in those at low risk of heart disease as the risk of serious bleeding is equal to the benefit with respect to cardiovascular problems.
Statins are effective in preventing further cardiovascular disease in those with a history of cardiovascular disease. As the event rate is higher in men than in women, the decrease in events is more easily seen in men than women. In those without cardiovascular disease but risk factors statins appear to also be beneficial with a decrease in mortality and further heart disease. The time course over which statins provide preventation against death appears to be long, of the order of one year, which is much longer than the duration of their effect on lipids.
Management[edit source | edit]
Cardiovascular disease is treatable with initial treatment primarily focused on diet and lifestyle interventions.
Epidemiology[edit source | edit]
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. In 2008, 30% of all global death is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Death caused by cardiovascular diseases are also higher in low and middle-income countries as over 80% of all global death caused by cardiovascular diseases occurred in those countries. It is also estimated that by 2030, over 23 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases annually.
Research[edit source | edit]
The first studies on cardiovascular health were performed in 1949 by Jerry Morris using occupational health data and were published in 1958. The causes, prevention, and/or treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease remain active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies being published on a weekly basis. A trend has emerged, particularly in the early 2000s, in which numerous studies have revealed a link between fast food and an increase in heart disease. These studies include those conducted by the Ryan Mickey Memorial Research Institute, Harvard University and the Sydney Center for Cardiovascular Health. Many major fast food chains, particularly McDonald's, have protested the methods used in these studies and have responded with healthier menu options.
A fairly recent emphasis is on the link between low-grade inflammation that hallmarks atherosclerosis and its possible interventions. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a common inflammatory marker that has been found to be present in increased levels in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. Also osteoprotegerin which involved with regulation of a key inflammatory transcription factor called NF-κB has been found to be a risk factor of cardiovascular disease and mortality.
Some areas currently being researched include possible links between infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae (a major cause of pneumonia) and coronary artery disease. The Chlamydia link has become less plausible with the absence of improvement after antibiotic use.
Several research also investigated the benefits of melatonin on cardiovascular diseases prevention and cure. Melatonin is a pineal gland secretion and it is shown to be able to lower total cholesterol, very low density and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the blood plasma of rats. Reduction of blood pressure is also observed when pharmacological doses are applied. Thus, it is deemed to be a plausible treatment for hypertension. However, further research needs to be conducted to investigate the side effects, optimal dosage and etc. before it can be licensed for use.
References[edit source | edit]
- Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1.
- Bridget B. Kelly; Institute of Medicine; Fuster, Valentin (2010). Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A Critical Challenge to Achieve Global Health. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-14774-3.
- Dantas AP, Jimenez-Altayo F, Vila E (August 2012). "Vascular aging: facts and factors". Frontiers in Vascular Physiology 3 (325): 1–2. doi:10.3389/fphys.2012.00325. PMID 22934073.
- Countries, Committee on Preventing the Global Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease: Meeting the Challenges in Developing; Fuster, Board on Global Health ; Valentin; Academies, Bridget B. Kelly, editors ; Institute of Medicine of the National (2010). Promoting cardiovascular health in the developing world : a critical challenge to achieve global health. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. pp. Chapter 2. ISBN 978-0-309-14774-3.
- Mendis, S.; Puska, P.; Norrving, B.(editors) (2011), Global Atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control, ISBN 978-92-4-156437-3
- Finegold, JA; Asaria, P; Francis, DP (2012 Dec 4). "Mortality from ischaemic heart disease by country, region, and age: Statistics from World Health Organisation and United Nations.". International journal of cardiology. PMID 23218570.
- McGill HC, McMahan CA, Gidding SS (March 2008). "Preventing heart disease in the 21st century: implications of the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study". Circulation 117 (9): 1216–27. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.717033. PMID 18316498.
- "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2009. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2009.
- Howard, BV; Wylie-Rosett, J (2002 Jul 23). "Sugar and cardiovascular disease: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on Nutrition of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association.". Circulation 106 (4): 523–7. PMID 12135957.
- Finks, SW; Airee, A; Chow, SL; Macaulay, TE; Moranville, MP; Rogers, KC; Trujillo, TC (2012 Apr). "Key articles of dietary interventions that influence cardiovascular mortality.". Pharmacotherapy 32 (4): e54–87. PMID 22392596.
- Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. (2004). "Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study". Lancet 364 (9438): 937–52. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17018-9. PMID 15364185.
- "Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack". American Heart Association.http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/UnderstandYourRiskofHeartAttack/Understand-Your-Risk-of-Heart-Attack_UCM_002040_Article.jsp#
- Mackay, Mensah, Mendis, et al. The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke. World Health Organization. January 2004.
- Jousilahti Vartiainen, Tuomilehto Puska (1999). "Sex, Age,Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and coronary heart disease". Circulation 99: 1165–1172.
- Jani B, Rajkumar C (2006). "Ageing and vascular ageing". Postgrad Med J 82: 357–362.
- Jackson R, Chambles L, Higgins M, Kuulasmaa K, Wijnberg L, Williams D (WHO MONICA Project, and ARIC Study.) Sex difference in ischaemic heart disease mortality and risk factors in 46 communities: an ecologic analysis. Cardiovasc Risk Factors. 1999; 7:43-54.
- Khallaf, Mohamed (2011). The Impact of Air Pollution on Health, Economy, Environment and Agricultural Sources. InTech. pp. 69–92. ISBN 978-953-307-528-0.
- Franchini M, Mannucci PM (2012). "Air pollution and cardiovascular disease". Thrombosis Research 129 (3): 230–4. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2011.10.030. PMID 22113148.
- "Cardiovascular Effects of Ambient Particulate Air Pollution Exposure". Circulation 121 (25): 2755–65. 2010. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.893461. PMC 2924678. PMID 20585020.
- Vanhecke TE, Miller WM, Franklin BA, Weber JE, McCullough PA (Oct 2006). "Awareness, knowledge, and perception of heart disease among adolescents". Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 13 (5): 718–23. doi:10.1097/01.hjr.0000214611.91490.5e. PMID 17001210.
- Highlander P, Shaw GP (2010). "Current pharmacotherapeutic concepts for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in diabetics". Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 4: 43–54.
- NPS Medicinewise (1 March 2011). "NPS Prescribing Practice Review 53: Managing lipids". Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- Kvan E., Pettersen K.I., Sandvik L., Reikvam A. (2007). "High mortality in diabetic patient with acute myocardial infarction: cardiovascular co-morbidities contribute most to the high risk". Int J Cardiol 121: 184–188.
- Norhammar A., Malmberg K., Diderhol E., Lagerqvist B., Lindahl B., Ryde et al. (2004). "Diabetes mellitus: the major risk factor in unstable coronary artery disease even after consideration of the extent of coronary artery disease and benefits of revascularization. J". Am Coll Cardiol 43: 585–591.
- DECODE , European Diabetes Epidemiology Group (1999). "Glucose tolerance and mortality: comparison of WHO and American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria". Lancet 354: 617–621. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)12131-1. PMID 10466661.
- Moyer, VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task, Force (2012 Oct 2). "Screening for coronary heart disease with electrocardiography: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.". Annals of internal medicine 157 (7): 512–8. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-7-201210020-00514. PMID 22847227.
- Wang TJ, Gona P, Larson MG, Tofler GH, Levy D, Newton-Cheh C, Jacques PF, Rifai N, Selhub J, Robins SJ, Benjamin EJ, D'Agostino RB, Vasan RS (2006). "Multiple biomarkers for the prediction of first major cardiovascular events and death". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (25): 2631–billy bob joe9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055373. PMID 17182988.
- Spence JD (2006). "Technology Insight: ultrasound measurement of carotid plaque--patient management, genetic research, and therapy evaluation". Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2 (11): 611–9. doi:10.1038/ncpneuro0324. PMID 17057748.
- Bertazzo, S. et al. Nano-analytical electron microscopy reveals fundamental insights into human cardiovascular tissue calcification. Nature Materials 12, 576-583 (2013).
- Inaba, Y; Chen, JA; Bergmann, SR (2012 Jan). "Carotid plaque, compared with carotid intima-media thickness, more accurately predicts coronary artery disease events: a meta-analysis.". Atherosclerosis 220 (1): 128–33. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.06.044. PMID 21764060.
- J Clin Lipidol. 2007 Dec;1(6):583-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2007.10.001. LDL Particle Number and Risk of Future Cardiovascular Disease in the Framingham Offspring Study - Implications for LDL Management.
- Wang TJ, Larson MG, Levy D, et al. (Feb 2004). "Plasma natriuretic peptide levels and the risk of cardiovascular events and death". N Engl J Med. 350 (7): 655–63. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa031994. PMID 14960742.
- NHS Direct
- Ignarro, LJ; Balestrieri, ML, Napoli, C (2007 Jan 15). "Nutrition, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease: an update.". Cardiovascular research 73 (2): 326–40. doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.06.030. PMID 16945357.
- World Heart Federation (5 October 2011). "World Heart Federation: Cardiovascular disease risk factors". Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) (5 October 2011). "How To Prevent and Control Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors - NHLBI, NIH". Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- Klatsky AL (May 2009). "Alcohol and cardiovascular diseases". Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 7 (5): 499–506. doi:10.1586/erc.09.22. PMID 19419257.
- McTigue KM, Hess R, Ziouras J (September 2006). "Obesity in older adults: a systematic review of the evidence for diagnosis and treatment". Obesity (Silver Spring) 14 (9): 1485–97. doi:10.1038/oby.2006.171. PMID 17030958.
- Linden W, Stossel C, Maurice J (April 1996). "Psychosocial interventions for patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis". Arch. Intern. Med. 156 (7): 745–52. PMID 8615707.
- Marshall, IJ; Wolfe, CD; McKevitt, C (2012 Jul 9). "Lay perspectives on hypertension and drug adherence: systematic review of qualitative research.". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 345: e3953. PMC 3392078. PMID 22777025.
- Dickinson, HO; Mason, JM; Nicolson, DJ; Campbell, F; Beyer, FR; Cook, JV; Williams, B; Ford, GA (2006 Feb). "Lifestyle interventions to reduce raised blood pressure: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.". Journal of hypertension 24 (2): 215–33. doi:10.1097/01.hjh.0000199800.72563.26. PMID 16508562.
- Moyer, VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task, Force (2012 Sep 4). "Behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.". Annals of internal medicine 157 (5): 367–71. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00486. PMID 22733153.
- Walker C, Reamy BV (April 2009). "Diets for cardiovascular disease prevention: what is the evidence?". Am Fam Physician 79 (7): 571–8. PMID 19378874.
- Estruch, Ramón et al (February 25, 2013). "Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet". New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1200303. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
- Nordmann, AJ; Suter-Zimmermann, K; Bucher, HC; Shai, I; Tuttle, KR; Estruch, R; Briel, M (2011 Sep). "Meta-analysis comparing Mediterranean to low-fat diets for modification of cardiovascular risk factors.". The American journal of medicine 124 (9): 841–51.e2. PMID 21854893.
- Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al. (January 2001). "Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1056/NEJM200101043440101. PMID 11136953.
- Obarzanek E, Sacks FM, Vollmer WM, et al. (July 2001). "Effects on blood lipids of a blood pressure-lowering diet: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 74 (1): 80–9. PMID 11451721.
- Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Esmaillzadeh A, Azizi T, Azizi F (December 2005). "Beneficial effects of a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan on features of the metabolic syndrome". Diabetes Care 28 (12): 2823–31. PMID 16306540.
- Logan AG (March 2007). "DASH Diet: time for a critical appraisal?". Am. J. Hypertens. 20 (3): 223–4. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2006.10.006. PMID 17324730.
- Willett, WC (2012 Jul). "Dietary fats and coronary heart disease.". Journal of internal medicine 272 (1): 13–24. PMID 22583051.
- Mozaffarian, D; Aro, A; Willett, WC (2009 May). "Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence.". European journal of clinical nutrition. 63 Suppl 2: S5–21. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602973. PMID 19424218.
- Ramsden, CE; Zamora, D; Leelarthaepin, B; Majchrzak-Hong, SF; Faurot, KR; Suchindran, CM; Ringel, A; Davis, JM; Hibbeln, JR (2013 Feb 4). "Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis.". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 346: e8707. PMID 23386268.
- Stamler J (March 2010). "Diet-heart: a problematic revisit". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91 (3): 497–9. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2010.29216. PMID 20130097.
- Siri-Tarino, PW; Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM (March 2010). "Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease.". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (3): 535–46. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725. PMC 2824152. PMID 20071648.
- Hooper, L; Summerbell, CD; Thompson, R; Sills, D; Roberts, FG; Moore, HJ; Davey Smith, G (2012 May 16). "Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease.". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 5: CD002137. PMID 22592684.
- Siri-Tarino Patty W, Sun Qi, Hu Frank B, Krauss Ronald M (2010). "Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (3): 502–509. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26285. PMC 2824150. PMID 20089734.
- Micha, R; Mozaffarian, D (2010 Oct). "Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a fresh look at the evidence.". Lipids 45 (10): 893–905. doi:10.1007/s11745-010-3393-4. PMC 2950931. PMID 20354806.
- Astrup, A; Dyerberg, J; Elwood, P; Hermansen, K; Hu, FB; Jakobsen, MU; Kok, FJ; Krauss, RM; Lecerf, JM; LeGrand, P; Nestel, P; Risérus, U; Sanders, T; Sinclair, A; Stender, S; Tholstrup, T; Willett, WC (2011 Apr). "The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010?". The American journal of clinical nutrition 93 (4): 684–8. PMID 21270379.
- Rizos, EC; Ntzani, EE; Bika, E; Kostapanos, MS; Elisaf, MS (2012 Sep 12). "Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis.". JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 308 (10): 1024–33. PMID 22968891.
- Taylor, RS; Ashton, KE; Moxham, T; Hooper, L; Ebrahim, S (2011 Jul 6). "Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (7): CD009217. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009217. PMID 21735439.
- He, F J; MacGregor G A (2011). "Salt reduction lowers cardiovascular risk: meta-analysis of outcome trials". The Lancet 378: 380–382. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61174-4. PMID 21803192.
- Paterna, S; Gaspare P, Fasullo S, Sarullo FM, Di Pasquale P (2008). "Normal-sodium diet compared with low-sodium diet in compensated congestive heart failure: is sodium an old enemy or a new friend?". Clin Sci (Lond) 114: 221–230. doi:10.1042/CS20070193. PMID 17688420.
- Bochud, M; Marques-Vidal, P; Burnier, M; Paccaud, F (2012). "Dietary Salt Intake and Cardiovascular Disease: Summarizing the Evidence". Public Health Reviews 33: 530–552.
- Cook, N R; et al. (2007). "Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP)". BMJ: 334. doi:10.1136/bmj.39147.604896.55. PMID 17449506.
- Bhupathiraju, SN; Tucker, KL (2011 Aug 17). "Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns.". Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 412 (17-18): 1493–514. PMID 21575619.
- Myung, SK; Ju, W; Cho, B; Oh, SW; Park, SM; Koo, BK; Park, BJ; for the Korean Meta-Analysis (KORMA) Study, Group (2013 Jan 18). "Efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 346: f10. PMC 3548618. PMID 23335472.
- Bruckert, E; Labreuche, J; Amarenco, P (2010 Jun). "Meta-analysis of the effect of nicotinic acid alone or in combination on cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis". Atherosclerosis 210 (2): 353–61. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.12.023. PMID 20079494.
- Lavigne, PM; Karas, RH (2013 Jan 29). "The current state of niacin in cardiovascular disease prevention: a systematic review and meta-regression.". Journal of the American College of Cardiology 61 (4): 440–6. PMID 23265337.
- Jee SH, Miller ER III, Guallar E et al. (2002). "The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials". Am J Hypertens 15 (8): 691–696. doi:10.1016/S0895-7061(02)02964-3. PMID 12160191.
- Zipes DP, Camm AJ, Borggrefe M et al. (2012). "ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death): developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society". Circulation 114 (10): e385–e484. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.178233. PMID 16935995.
- Massy ZA, Drüeke TB (2012). "Magnesium and outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease: focus on vascular calcification, atherosclerosis, and survival". Clin Kidney J 5 (Suppl 1): i52–i61. doi:10.1093/ndtplus/sfr167.
- Kwak, SM; Myung, SK; Lee, YJ; Seo, HG; for the Korean Meta-analysis Study, Group (2012 Apr 9). "Efficacy of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements (Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid) in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-analysis of Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials.". Archives of Internal Medicine. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.262. PMID 22493407.
- Berger, JS; Lala, A, Krantz, MJ, Baker, GS, Hiatt, WR (2011 Jul). "Aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients without clinical cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.". American heart journal 162 (1): 115–24.e2. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2011.04.006. PMID 21742097.
- Gutierrez, J; Ramirez, G; Rundek, T; Sacco, RL (2012 Jun 25). "Statin Therapy in the Prevention of Recurrent Cardiovascular Events: A Sex-Based Meta-analysisStatin Therapy to Prevent Recurrent CV Events.". Archives of Internal Medicine 172 (12): 909–19. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.2145. PMID 22732744.
- Taylor, F; Huffman, MD; Macedo, AF; Moore, TH; Burke, M; Davey Smith, G; Ward, K; Ebrahim, S (2013 Jan 31). "Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 1: CD004816. PMID 23440795.
- Francis, DP (2011 May 19). "Duration and magnitude of the effect of a single statin tablet in primary prevention of cardiovascular events.". International journal of cardiology 149 (1): 102–7. PMID 21183232.
- Ornish, Dean, "et al." (Jul 1990). "'Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?' The Lifestyle Heart Trial.". Lancet 336 (8708): 129–33. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)91656-U. PMID 1973470.
- Ornish, D., Scherwitz, L. W., Doody, R. S., Kesten, D., McLanahan, S. M., Brown, S. E. "et al." (1983). "Effects of stress management training and dietary changes in treating ischemic heart disease". JAMA 249 (54): 54. doi:10.1001/jama.249.1.54. PMID 6336794.
- Ornish, D., Scherwitz, L. W., Billings, J. H., Brown, S. E., Gould, K. L., Merritt, T. A. "et al." (1998). "Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease". JAMA 280 (23): 2001–7. doi:10.1001/jama.280.23.2001. PMID 9863851.
- "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2009. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2009.
- Morris J. N., Crawford Margaret D. (1958). "Coronary Heart Disease and Physical Activity of Work". British Medical Journal 2 (5111): 1485–1496. PMC 2027542. PMID 13608027.
- Karakas M, Koenig W (December 2009). "CRP in cardiovascular disease". Herz 34 (8): 607–13. doi:10.1007/s00059-009-3305-7. PMID 20024640.
- Venuraju SM, Yerramasu A, Corder R, Lahiri A (May 2010). "Osteoprotegerin as a predictor of coronary artery disease and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55 (19): 2049–61. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.03.013. PMID 20447527.
- Andraws R, Berger JS, Brown DL (Jun 2005). "Effects of antibiotic therapy on outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". JAMA 293 (21): 2641–7. doi:10.1001/jama.293.21.2641. PMID 15928286.
- Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto (January 2012). "Melatonin and Cardiovascular Disease: Myth or Reality?". Rev Esp Cardiol 65: 215–218.
[edit source | edit]
- Cardiovascular disease at the Open Directory Project
- European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012)
全文を閲覧するには購読必要です。 To read the full text you will need to subscribe.
- 1. Overview of the therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
- 2. シャーガス心臓病：臨床症状および診断 chagas heart disease clinical manifestations and diagnosis
- 3. 高拍出性心不全 high output heart failure
- 4. 重症先天性心疾患を有する新生児の識別 identifying newborns with critical congenital heart disease
- 5. 心不全または心筋症患者の病因及び重症度の決定 determining the etiology and severity of heart failure or cardiomyopathy
- The impact of body mass index on the associations of lipids with the risk of coronary heart disease in the Asia Pacific region.
- Hirakawa Y1, Lam TH2, Welborn T3, Kim HC4, Ho S5, Fang X6, Ueshima H7, Suh I8, Giles G9, Woodward M10; Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration.
- Preventive medicine reports.Prev Med Rep.2015 Dec 30;3:79-82. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.12.012. eCollection 2016.
- OBJECTIVE: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) modifies the associations of lipids with coronary heart disease (CHD).METHODS: In the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured for 333,297, 71
- PMID 26844192
- Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis.
- Lin RJ, Su ZZ, Liang SM, Chen YY, Shu XR, Nie RQ, Wang JF, Xie SL1.
- Chinese medical journal.Chin Med J (Engl).2016 5th Feb;129(3):326-331. doi: 10.4103/0366-6999.174503.
- OBJECTIVE: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis.DATA SOURCES: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from
- PMID 26831236
- 自律神経指標を用いた発達障害者のコミュニケーション支援 : エアロビック競技指導における一考察
- 明治大学理工学部研究報告 = Research reports, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University (53), 1-7, 2016-03
- NAID 40020807037
- 法務研修セミナー第45回報告 労働者の発症した脳心臓血管疾患及び精神障害の業務起因性と使用者の安全配慮義務 : 裁判例を中心に
- Chukyo lawyer (24), 51-68, 2016-03
- NAID 40020763795
- Development and Evaluation of a Smartphone Application for Self-estimation of Daily Mental Stress Level
- International Journal of Affective Engineering 15(2), 183-187, 2016
- NAID 130005162020
- Doctors and experts at the free camp gave advice to general public and patients of blood pressure, diabetes, heart disorders, cholesterol, constipation, depression, obesity, TB, food allergies, depression, cancer, liver & renal diseases ...
- Heart disorders (heart disease): background - Heart disease, or heart disorders, are conditions that affect the heart muscle or the blood vessels of the heart. There are many different types of heart disease, but the most common is ...
- audition, auditory sense, sense of hearing, auditory modality