出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』「2015/12/13 01:20:10」(JST)[Wiki en表示]
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- 1. 外傷性脳損傷：疫学、分類、および病態生理 traumatic brain injury epidemiology classification and pathophysiology
- 2. 鈍的脳血管損傷：機序、検査、および診断的評価 blunt cerebrovascular injury mechanisms screening and diagnostic evaluation
- 3. 小児における重度の外傷性脳損傷に対する初期アプローチ initial approach to severe traumatic brain injury in children
- 4. 成人における昏迷および昏睡 stupor and coma in adults
- 5. 幼児および小児における軽微な頭部外傷：評価 minor head trauma in infants and children evaluation
- The relation between mechanical impact parameters and most frequent bicycle related head injuries.
- Monea AG1, Van der Perre G2, Baeck K2, Delye H3, Verschueren P2, Forausebergher E2, Van Lierde C2, Verpoest I4, Vander Sloten J2, Goffin J3, Depreitere B3.Author information 1Biomechanics Section, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium; Department of Experimental Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy, KU Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.orgBiomechanics Section, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.3Department of Experimental Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy, KU Leuven, Belgium.4Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Belgium.AbstractThe most frequent head injuries resulting from bicycle accidents include skull fracture acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), cerebral contusions, and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This review includes epidemiological studies, cadaver experiments, in vivo imaging, image processing techniques, and computer reconstructions of cycling accidents used to estimate the mechanical parameters leading to specific head injuries. The results of the head impact tests suggest the existence of an energy failure level for the skull fracture, specific for different impact regions (22-24J for the frontal site and 5-15J for temporal site). Typical linear patterns were described for frontal, parietal and occipital skull fracture. Temporal skull fracture described considerably higher variability. In term of contusion mechanogenesis, the experiments proved that relative brain-skull motion will not be prevented if the maximum frequency of the impact frequency spectrum stays below 150Hz or below the frequency corresponding to the impedance peak of the head under investigation. The brain shift patterns in humans, both in dynamic and quasistatic situations were shown to be very complex, with maximum amplitudes localized at the level of the inferolateral aspects of the frontal and temporal lobes. The resulting brain maximum amplitudes differed when the head was subjected to a sagittal or lateral motion. Finally, the presented data support the existence of a critical elongation/stretch criterion for the occurrence of ASDH due to BV rupture, located around 5mm elongation or 25% stretch limit. In addition, a tolerance level lying around 10,000rad/s(2) for pulse durations below 10ms was established for BV rupture, which seems to decrease with increasing pulse duration. The described research indicates that injury specific tolerance criteria can provide a more accurate prediction for head injuries than the currently used HIC. Internal brain lesions are strongly related to rotational effects which are not appropriately accounted by the commonly accepted head injury criterion (HIC). The research summarized in this paper adds significantly to the creation of a fundamental knowledge for the improvement of bicycle helmets as well as other head protective measures. The described investigations and experimental results are of crucial importance also for forensic research.
- Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials.J Mech Behav Biomed Mater.2014 May;33:3-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.06.011. Epub 2013 Jul 18.
- The most frequent head injuries resulting from bicycle accidents include skull fracture acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), cerebral contusions, and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This review includes epidemiological studies, cadaver experiments, in vivo imaging, image processing techniques, and computer
- PMID 23972407
- Baseline performance and learning rate of conceptual and perceptual skill-learning tasks: The effect of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.
- Vakil E1, Lev-Ran Galon C.Author information 1a Department of Psychology and Leslie and Susan Gonda (Goldschmied) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center , Bar-Ilan University , Ramat-Gan , Israel.AbstractExisting literature presents a complex and inconsistent picture of the specific deficiencies involved in skill learning following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In an attempt to address this difficulty, individuals with moderate to severe TBI (n = 29) and a control group (n = 29) were tested with two different skill-learning tasks: conceptual (i.e., Tower of Hanoi Puzzle, TOHP) and perceptual (i.e., mirror reading, MR). Based on previous studies of the effect of divided attention on these tasks and findings regarding the effect of TBI on conceptual and perceptual priming tasks, it was predicted that the group with TBI would show impaired baseline performance compared to controls in the TOHP task though their learning rate would be maintained, while both baseline performance and learning rate on the MR task would be maintained. Consistent with our predictions, overall baseline performance of the group with TBI was impaired in the TOHP test, while the learning rate was not. The learning rate on the MR task was preserved but, contrary to our prediction, response time of the group with TBI was slower than that of controls. The pattern of results observed in the present study was interpreted to possibly reflect an impairment of both the frontal lobes as well as that of diffuse axonal injury, which is well documented as being affected by TBI. The former impairment affects baseline performance of the conceptual learning skill, while the latter affects the overall slower performance of the perceptual learning skill.
- Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology.J Clin Exp Neuropsychol.2014 Apr 17:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]
- Existing literature presents a complex and inconsistent picture of the specific deficiencies involved in skill learning following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In an attempt to address this difficulty, individuals with moderate to severe TBI (n = 29) and a control group (n = 29) were tested with two
- PMID 24742199
- Nanoscopic injury with macroscopic consequences: tau proteins as mediators of diffuse axonal injury.
- Genin GM.
- Biophysical journal.Biophys J.2014 Apr 15;106(8):1551-2. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2014.03.003.
- PMID 24739151
- Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a frequent result of traumatic acceleration/deceleration or rotational injuries and a frequent cause of persistent vegetative state in patients. In fact, DAI represents approximately one half of all ...
- Diffuse axonal injury occurs in about half of all severe head traumas, making it one of the most common traumatic brain injuries. It can also occur in moderate and mild brain injury. A diffuse axonal injury falls under the category of a ...
- diffuse axonal injury
- diffuse axonal injury
- accidental injury