出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』「2013/12/20 13:54:05」(JST)[Wiki en表示]
|Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy|
Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is a surgical procedure in which a portion of the sympathetic nerve trunk in the thoracic region is destroyed. ETS is used to treat focal hyperhidrosis, facial blushing, Raynaud's disease and reflex sympathetic dystrophy. By far the most common complaint treated with ETS is palmar hyperhidrosis, or colloquially known as "sweaty palms".
Sympathectomy physically destroys relevant nerves anywhere in either of the two sympathetic trunks, which are long chains of nerve ganglia located bilaterally along the vertebral column (situated to reduce the potential for injury) responsible for various important aspects of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Each nerve trunk is broadly divided into three regions: cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), and lumbar (lower back). The most common area targeted in sympathectomy is the upper thoracic region, that part of the sympathetic chain lying between the first and fifth thoracic vertebrae.
- 1 Indications
- 2 Surgical procedure
- 3 Physical, mental and emotional effects
- 4 Risks
- 5 Controversy
- 6 History
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
ETS is most commonly used to treat Focal Hyperhidrosis (that specifically affects the hands, feet and underarms), Raynaud's phenomenon, and facial blushing.
There are reports of ETS being used to achieve cerebral revascularization for patients with moyamoya disease, and to treat headaches, hyperactive bronchial tubes, long QT syndrome and other conditions.
ETS involves dissection of the main Sympathetic trunk in the upper thoracic region of the sympathetic nervous system, thus irreparably disrupting neural messages that ordinarily would travel to many different organs, glands and muscles. It is via those nerves of the autonomic nervous system that the brain is able to make adjustments in the body in response to changing conditions in the environment, fluctuating emotional states, level of exercise, and other factors to maintain the body's homeostasis.
Because these nerves also regulate conditions like excessive blushing or sweating, which the procedure is designed to eliminate, the normative functions these physiological mechanisms perform is disabled or significantly impaired by sympathectomy.
There is much disagreement among ETS surgeons about the best surgical method, optimal location for nerve dissection, and the nature and extent of the consequent primary effects and side effects. When performed endoscopically as is usually the case, the surgeon penetrates the chest cavity making multiple incisions about the diameter of a straw between ribs. This allows the surgeon to insert the video camera (endoscope) in one hole and a surgical instrument in another. The operation is accomplished by dissecting the nerve tissue of the main sympathetic chain.
Another technique, the clamping method, also referred to as 'endoscopic sympathetic blockade' (ESB) employs titanium clamps around the nerve tissue, and was developed as an alternative to older methods in an unsuccessful attempt to make the procedure reversible. Technical reversal of the clamping procedure must be performed within a short time after clamping (estimated at a few days or weeks at most), and a recovery, evidence indicates, will not be complete.
Physical, mental and emotional effects
Sympathectomy works by disabling part of the autonomic nervous system (and thereby disrupting its signals from the brain), through surgical intervention, in the expectation of removing or alleviating the designated problem. Many non-ETS doctors have found this practice questionable chiefly because its purpose is to destroy functionally disordered, but anatomically typical nerves.
Exact results of ETS are impossible to predict, because of considerable anatomic variations in nerve function from one patient to the next, and also because of variations in surgical technique. The autonomic nervous system is not anatomically exact and connections might exist with different parts of the body. This theory has been proven by the fact that a significant number of patients who have had sympathectomy for hand sweating might notice a reduction or elimination of feet sweating, in contrast to others who do not. No reliable operation exists for foot sweating per se except lumbar sympathectomy, at the opposite end of the SNS chain.
Thoracic sympathectomy will distort many bodily functions, including sweating, vascular responses, heart rate, heart stroke volume, thyroid, baroreflex,lung volume, pupil dilation, skin temperature and other aspects of the autonomic nervous system, like the essential fight-or-flight response. It reduces the physiological responses to strong emotions, such as fear and laughter, diminishes the body's physical reaction to both pain and pleasure, and inhibits cutaneous sensations such as goose bumps.
A large study of psychiatric patients treated with this surgery showed significant reductions in fear, alertness and arousal. (Teleranta, Pohjavaara, et al. 2003, 2004). Arousal is essential to consciousness, in regulating attention and information processing, memory and emotion.
ETS patients are being studied using the autonomic failure protocol headed by David Goldstein, M.D. Ph.D., senior investigator at the U.S National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. He has documented loss of thermoregulatory function, cardiac denervation, and loss of vasoconstriction. Recurrence of the original symptoms due to nerve regeneration or nerve sprouting can occur within the first year post surgery. Nerve sprouting, or abnormal nerve growth after damage or injury to the nerves can cause other further damage. Sprouting sympathtetic nerves can form connections with sensory nerves, and lead to pain conditions that are mediated by the SNS. Every time the system is activated, it is translated into pain. This sprouting and its action can lead to Frey's syndrome, a recognized after effect of sympathectomy, when the growing sympathetic nerves innervate salivary glands, leading to excessive sweating regardless of environmental temperature through olfactory or gustatory stimulation.
No surgery is risk-free, and ETS has both the normal risks of surgery, such as bleeding and infection, and several specific risks, including permanent and unavoidable alteration of nerve function. A number of patients, mostly young women, have died during this procedure. Bleeding during and following the operation may be significant in up to 5% of patients. Pneumothorax (collapsed lung) can occur (2% of patients).
Compensatory hyperhidrosis (or reflex hyperhidrosis) is common over the long term, causing a percentage of patients to regret having had the surgery. The rates of severe compensatory sweating vary widely between studies, ranging from as low as 1.2% and as high as 30.9% of patients. Of those patients that develop this side effect, about a quarter said it was major and disabling.
A rare possible consequence of thoracic sympathectomy is corposcindosis (split-body syndrome), in which the patient feels that he or she is living in two separate bodies, because sympathetic nerve function has been divided into two distinct regions, one subjectively defunctive, and the other hyperactive.
Additionally, the following side effects have all been reported by patients: Chronic muscular pain, numbness and weakness of the limbs, Horner's Syndrome, anhidrosis, hyperthermia (exacerbated by anhidrosis and systemic thermoregulatory dysfunction), neuralgia, paraesthesia, fatigue and amotivationality, breathing difficulties, substantially diminished physiological/chemical reaction to internal and environmental experience (e.g. pleasure and pain/ perceptual stimuli), somatosensory malfunction, aberrant physiological reaction to stress and exertion etc., Reynaud’s disease caused by cold weather etc. (ironically a possible indication for surgery), reflex hyperhidrosis (or compensatory sweating as above), altered/erratic blood pressure and circulation, defective fight or flight response system, loss of adrenaline, eczema and other skin conditions resulting from exceptionally dry skin; rhinitis, gustatory sweating (or Frey's syndrome, see above).
Some long-term adverse effects include:
- Ultrastructural Changes in the Cerebral Artery Wall Induced by Long-Term Sympathetic Denervation
- Sympathectomy eliminates the psychogalvanic reflex
- Cervical sympathectomy reduces the heterogeneity of oxygen saturation in small cerebrocortical veins
- Sympathetic denervation is one of the causes of Mönckeberg's sclerosis
- T2-3 sympathectomy suppressed baroreflex control of heart rate in the patients with palmar hyperhidrosis. We should note that baroreflex response for maintaining cardiovascular stability is suppressed in the patients who received the ETS.
- Exertional heat stroke.
- Morphofunctional changes in the myocardium following sympathectomy.
Other side effects are the inability to raise the heart rate sufficiently during exercise with instances requiring an artificial pacemaker after developing bradycardia being reported as a consequence of the surgery.
The Finnish Office for Health Care Technology Assessment recently concluded in a 400 page systematic review that Endoscopic Thoracic Sympathectomy is associated with an unusually high number of significant immediate and long-term adverse effects.
Quoting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare statement: "The method can give permanent side effects that in some cases will first become obvious only after some time. One of the side effects might be increased perspiration on different places on your body. Why and how this happens is still unknown. According to the research available about 25-75% of all patients can expect more or less serious perspiration on different places on their body, such as the trunk and groin area, this is Compensatory sweating".
In 2003, ETS was banned in its birthplace, Sweden, due to overwhelming complaints by disabled patients. In 2004, Taiwanese health authorities banned the procedure on patients under 20 years of age. In other countries it is a notoriously unregulated procedure.
The internet now features many websites run by surgeons extolling the benefits of ETS. However, there are also many websites run by disabled ETS victims who complain of severe adverse reactions leading to decreased ability to perform ones occupation and daily activities and a perceived lack of adequate informed consent. Several online discussion forums are dedicated to the subject of ETS surgery, where patient testimonials abound.
Sympathectomy developed in the mid-19th century, when it was learned that the autonomic nervous system runs to almost every organ, gland and muscle system in the body. It was surmised that these nerves play a role in how the body regulates many different body functions in response to changes in the external environment, and in emotion.
The first sympathectomy was performed by Alexander in 1889. Thoracic sympathectomy has been indicated for hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) since 1920, when Kotzareff showed it would cause anhidrosis (total inability to sweat) from the nipple line upwards.
A lumbar sympathectomy was also developed and used to treat excessive sweating of the feet and other ailments, and typically resulted in impotence and retrograde ejaculation in men. Lumbar sympathectomy is still being offered as a treatment for plantar hyperhidrosis, or as a treatment for patients who have a bad outcome (extreme 'compensatory sweating') after thoracic sympathectomy for palmar hyperhidrosis or blushing; extensive sympathectomy risks hypotension.
Endoscopic sympathectomy itself is relatively easy to perform; however, accessing the nerve tissue in the chest cavity by conventional surgical methods was difficult, painful, and spawned several different approaches in the past. The posterior approach was developed in 1908, and required resection (sawing off) of ribs. A supraclavical (above the collar-bone) approach was developed in 1935, which was less painful than the posterior, but was more prone to damaging delicate nerves and blood vessels. Because of these difficulties, and because of disabling sequelae associated with sympathetic denervation, conventional or "open" sympathectomy was never a popular procedure, although it continued to be practiced for hyperhidrosis, Raynaud's disease, and various psychiatric disorders. With the brief popularization of lobotomy in the 1940s, sympathectomy fell out of favor as a form of psychosurgery.
The endoscopic version of thoracic sympathectomy was pioneered by Goren Claes and Christer Drott in Sweden in the late 1980s. The development of endoscopic "minimally invasive" surgical techniques have decreased the recovery time from the surgery and increased its availability. Today, ETS surgery is practiced in many countries throughout the world predominantly by vascular surgeons.
- Harlequin syndrome
- Cerfolio, Robert J.; De Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Bryant, Ayesha S.; Connery, Cliff P.; Miller, Daniel L.; DeCamp, Malcolm M.; McKenna, Robert J.; Krasna, Mark J. (2011). "The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Expert Consensus for the Surgical Treatment of Hyperhidrosis". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 91 (5): 1642–1648. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.01.105. ISSN 0003-4975.
- Suzuki J, Takaku A, Kodama N, Sato S (1975). "An attempt to treat cerebrovascular 'Moyamoya' disease in children". Childs Brain 1 (4): 193–206. doi:10.1159/000119568. PMID 1183260.
- Sung SW, Kim JS (March 1999). "Thoracoscopic procedures for intrathoracic and pulmonary diseases". Respirology 4 (1): 19–29. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1843.1999.00146.x. PMID 10339727. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Telaranta T (December 2003). "Psychoneurological applications of endoscopic sympathetic blocks (ESB)". Clin Auton Res. 13 (Suppl 1): I20–1; discussion I21. doi:10.1007/s10286-003-1107-1. PMID 14673667. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Ventricular Arrhythmia/ Tachycardia
- Khan IA (January 2002). "Long QT syndrome: diagnosis and management". Am Heart J. 143 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1067/mhj.2002.120295. PMID 11773906. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- McNaughton, Neil (1989). Biology and emotion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-521-31938-2.
- Sihoe AD, Liu RW, Lee AK, Lam CW, Cheng LC (September 2007). "Is previous thoracic sympathectomy a risk factor for exertional heat stroke?". Ann Thorac Surg. 84 (3): 1025–7. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.04.066. PMID 17720429. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Redisch W, Tangco FT, Wertheimer L, Lewis AJ, Steele JM (1 April 1957). "Vasomotor responses in the extremities of subjects with various neurologic lesions. I. Reflex responses to warming". Circulation 15 (4): 518–24. PMID 13414070.
- Abraham P, Berthelot J, Victor J, Saumet JL, Picquet J, Enon B (December 2002). "Holter changes resulting from right-sided and bilateral infrastellate upper thoracic sympathectomy". Ann Thorac Surg. 74 (6): 2076–81. doi:10.1016/S0003-4975(02)04080-8. PMID 12643398. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Abraham P 2002: Fig 1. Histogram (mean ± SEM) of the heart rate before , after right-side, and after bilateral infrastellate sympathectomy.
- Chess-Williams RG, Grassby PF, Culling W, Penny W, Broadley KJ, Sheridan DJ (April 1985). "Cardiac postjunctional supersensitivity to beta-agonists after chronic chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine". Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 329 (2): 162–6. doi:10.1007/BF00501207. PMID 2861571. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Hashmonai M, Kopelman D (December 2003). "The pathophysiology of cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic surgery". Clin. Auton. Res. 13 (Suppl 1): I40–4. doi:10.1007/s10286-003-1105-3. PMID 14673672. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Kawamata YT, Homma E, Kawamata T, Omote K, Namiki A (2001). "Influence of Endoscopic Thoracic Sympathectomy on Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate in Patients with Palmar Hyperhidrosis". Anesthesiology 95: A160.
- Milner P, Lincoln J, Burnstock G (1998). "The neurochemical organization of the autonomic nervous system". In Appenzeller O, Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW. The autonomic nervous system. [Amsterdam, Netherlands]: Elsevier Science Publishers. p. 110. ISBN 0-444-82812-5.
- Bassenge E, Holtz J, Restorff W Von, Oversohl K (July 1973). "Effect of chemical sympathectomy on coronary flow and cardiovascular adjustment to exercise in dogs". Pflugers Arch. 341 (4): 285–96. doi:10.1007/BF01023670. PMID 4798744. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Social phobia: aetiology, course and treatment with endoscopic sympathetic block (ESB). A qualitative study of the development of social phobia and its meaning in people's lives and a quantitative study of ESB as its treatment
- Moak JP, Eldadah B, Holmes C, Pechnik S, Goldstein DS (June 2005). "Partial cardiac sympathetic denervation after bilateral thoracic sympathectomy in humans". Heart Rhythm 2 (6): 602–9. doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2005.03.003. PMID 15922266. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Ojimba, TA; Cameron, AEP (2004). "Drawbacks of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy". British Journal of Surgery (John Wiley & Sons) 91 (3): 264–269. doi:10.1002/bjs.4511. PMID 14991624. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help);
- Dumont P (May 2008). "Side effects and complications of surgery for hyperhidrosis" (PDF). Thorac Surg Clin 18 (2): 193–207. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2008.01.007. PMID 18557592. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Furlan AD, Mailis A, Papagapiou M (2000). "Are we paying a high price for surgical sympathectomy? A systematic literature review of late complications". J Pain 1 (4): 245–57. doi:10.1054/jpai.2000.19408. PMID 14622605.
- Dimitriadou V, Aubineau P, Taxi J, Seylaz J (1988). "Ultrastructural changes in the cerebral artery wall induced by long-term sympathetic denervation". Blood Vessels 25 (3): 122–43. doi:10.1159/000158727. PMID 3359052.
- Verghese A (May 1968). "Some observations on the psychogalvanic reflex". Br J Psychiatry 114 (510): 639–42. doi:10.1192/bjp.114.510.639. PMID 5654139. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Wei HM, Sinha AK, Weiss HR (1 April 1993). "Cervical sympathectomy reduces the heterogeneity of oxygen saturation in small cerebrocortical veins". J. Appl. Physiol. 74 (4): 1911–5. PMID 8514710.
- Goebel FD, Füessl HS (May 1983). "Mönckeberg's sclerosis after sympathetic denervation in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects". Diabetologia 24 (5): 347–50. doi:10.1007/BF00251822. PMID 6873514. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- Beskrovnova NN, Makarychev VA, Kiseleva ZM, Legon'kaia, Zhuchkova NI (1984). "[Morphofunctional changes in the myocardium following sympathectomy and their role in the development of sudden death from ventricular fibrillation]". Vestn. Akad. Med. Nauk SSSR (in Russian) (2): 80–5. PMID 6711115.
- Lai CL, Chen WJ, Liu YB, Lee YT (April 2001). "Bradycardia and permanent pacing after bilateral thoracoscopic T2-sympathectomy for primary hyperhidrosis". Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 24 (4 Pt 1): 524–5. doi:10.1046/j.1460-9592.2001.00524.x. PMID 11341096. Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
- de Souza Faleiros AT, de Abreu Maffei FH, de Lima Resende LA (2006). "Effects of cervical sympathectomy on vasospasm induced by meningeal haemorrhage in rabbits". Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. 64 (3a). doi:10.1590/S0004-282X2006000400006.
- "Effectiveness and safety of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy". Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.
- Roberto de Menezes Lyra, Campos JR, Kang DW, Loureiro Mde P, Furian MB, Costa MG, Coelho Mde S; Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Torácica. (2008 Nov). "Guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of compensatory hyperhidrosis.". J Bras Pneumol. 34 (11): 967–77. PMID 19099105. Check date values in:
- Anti-surgery websites
- Truth About ETS
- FfSo - People disabled by sympathectomies
- Patients Against Sympathetic Surgery
- Alternatives and ETS surgeon rankings and surgery discussions
- Commercial websites
-  University of Maryland Medical Center
-  Mayo Clinic
- Scientific websites
-  Corposcindosis (Split-Body Syndrome) The Effects of Thoracic Sympathectomy in Humans
全文を閲覧するには購読必要です。 To read the full text you will need to subscribe.
- 1. 治療抵抗性高血圧の治療 treatment of resistant hypertension
- 2. 筋萎縮性側索硬化症およびその他の運動ニューロン疾患の診断 diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other forms of motor neuron disease
- 3. 筋電図検査の概要 overview of electromyography
- 4. 銅欠乏性脊髄神経障害 copper deficiency myeloneuropathy
- 5. カテコラミン誘発多形性心室頻拍および他のQT間隔正常の多形性心室頻拍 catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and other polymorphic ventricular tachycardias with a normal qt interval
- Different patterns of cardiac sympathetic denervation in tremor-type compared to akinetic-rigid-type Parkinson's disease: Molecular imaging with 123I-MIBG.
- Chiaravalloti A, Stefani A, Tavolozza M, Pierantozzi M, Di Biagio D, Olivola E, Di Pietro B, Stampanoni M, Danieli R, Simonetti G, Stanzione P, Schillaci O.SourceDepartment of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, University Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
- Molecular medicine reports.Mol Med Report.2012 Dec;6(6):1337-42. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2012.1104. Epub 2012 Sep 27.
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the clinical motor phenotypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) and 123I-MIBG myocardial uptake. In total, 53 patients with PD [31 males and 22 females, mean age 62±10 years; 19 Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y)
- PMID 23023866
- L-DOPA-induced increase in TH-immunoreactive striatal neurons in parkinsonian mice: Insights into regulation and function.
- Espadas I, Darmopil S, Vergaño-Vera E, Ortiz O, Oliva I, Vicario-Abejón C, Martín ED, Moratalla R.SourceCajal Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain; CIBERNED, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
- Neurobiology of disease.Neurobiol Dis.2012 Dec;48(3):271-81. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2012.07.012. Epub 2012 Jul 20.
- Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (ir) neurons have been found in the striatum after dopamine depletion; however, little is known about the mechanism underlying their appearance or their functional significance. We previously showed an increase in striatal TH-ir neurons after l-DOPA treatment
- PMID 22820144
- 治療抵抗性高血圧に対する腎交感神経アブレーション (第5土曜特集 高血圧のすべて2012 : 研究と診療の最前線) -- (高血圧治療のあらたなエビデンス)
- 福田 英克,木村 玄次郎
- 医学のあゆみ 241(13), 1087-1091, 2012-06-30
- NAID 40019315904
- 腎交感神経アブレーションに期待される降圧以外の有益作用 (AYUMI 高血圧診療のNew Technology : 腎交感神経アブレーションを中心に)
- 檜垣 實男,大蔵 隆文
- 医学のあゆみ 240(12), 967-970, 2012-03-24
- NAID 40019190663
- Als Denervierung, auch Entnervung oder Enervation (engl. denervation) genannt , bezeichnet man das vollständige oder partielle Unterbrechen von Nervenbahnen zwischen einem Organ und dem Gehirn oder der eines Großhirnareals von ...
- 27 Aug 2012 ... Renal denervation leads to significant and sustained blood pressure reduction for up to 18 months in patients with treatment resistant hypertension, according to new research.