- conformer, conformism
出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』「2012/02/21 00:50:12」(JST)[Wiki en表示]
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- 1. 爪の手術 nail surgery
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- A comparison of motivations for use among users of crack cocaine and cocaine powder in a sample of simultaneous cocaine and alcohol users.
- Martin G1, Macdonald S2, Pakula B3, Roth EA4.Author information 1Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, University of Victoria, Canada. Electronic address: email@example.comCentre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, University of Victoria, Canada; School of Health Information Science, University of Victoria, Canada.3School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Canada.4Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, University of Victoria, Canada; Department of Anthropology, University of Victoria, Canada.AbstractThis study examined the motivations for using cocaine and alcohol comparing those who primarily smoked crack and those who primarily used cocaine powder when using simultaneously with alcohol. Motivations examined included: 1) to cope with a negative affect, 2) enhancement, 3) to be social and 4) to conform. The research design was a cross-sectional study in which clients in treatment for cocaine and alcohol problems completed a self-administered questionnaire about their substance use. Among those who primarily smoked crack or snorted cocaine when also using alcohol (n=153), there were 93 participants who reported primarily snorting cocaine and 60 participants who primarily reported smoking crack. Bivariate analyses found that those who primarily smoked crack reported lower social motivations to use alcohol and cocaine. When adjusting for other covariates in a multivariate analysis, social motivation was still significantly different between groups. Additionally, those who primarily smoked crack were more likely to be older, report higher cocaine dependence severity, be unemployed and were less likely to have completed some post-secondary education, than those who primarily snorted cocaine. No differences were found in enhancement, coping or conformity motivations between the two groups. These results suggest that simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use may have social importance to those who primarily snort cocaine, but that this importance is less evident to those who smoke crack. Consequently, future studies examining motivations for simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use should distinguish between different routes of cocaine administration.
- Addictive behaviors.Addict Behav.2014 Mar;39(3):699-702. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.029. Epub 2013 Oct 31.
- This study examined the motivations for using cocaine and alcohol comparing those who primarily smoked crack and those who primarily used cocaine powder when using simultaneously with alcohol. Motivations examined included: 1) to cope with a negative affect, 2) enhancement, 3) to be social and 4) to
- PMID 24290877
- Data generation for the Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates: a method for medical researchers.
- Hendry DJ.Author information Center for the Study of American Politics, Institution for Social and Policy Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8209, U.S.A.AbstractThe proliferation of longitudinal studies has increased the importance of statistical methods for time-to-event data that can incorporate time-dependent covariates. The Cox proportional hazards model is one such method that is widely used. As more extensions of the Cox model with time-dependent covariates are developed, simulations studies will grow in importance as well. An essential starting point for simulation studies of time-to-event models is the ability to produce simulated survival times from a known data generating process. This paper develops a method for the generation of survival times that follow a Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates. The method presented relies on a simple transformation of random variables generated according to a truncated piecewise exponential distribution and allows practitioners great flexibility and control over both the number of time-dependent covariates and the number of time periods in the duration of follow-up measurement. Within this framework, an additional argument is suggested that allows researchers to generate time-to-event data in which covariates change at integer-valued steps of the time scale. The purpose of this approach is to produce data for simulation experiments that mimic the types of data structures applied that researchers encounter when using longitudinal biomedical data. Validity is assessed in a set of simulation experiments, and results indicate that the proposed procedure performs well in producing data that conform to the assumptions of the Cox proportional hazards model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Statistics in medicine.Stat Med.2014 Feb 10;33(3):436-54. doi: 10.1002/sim.5945. Epub 2013 Sep 9.
- The proliferation of longitudinal studies has increased the importance of statistical methods for time-to-event data that can incorporate time-dependent covariates. The Cox proportional hazards model is one such method that is widely used. As more extensions of the Cox model with time-dependent cova
- PMID 24014094
- Protective behavioral strategy use and motivations for drinking: exploring Alternatives to Drinking strategies.
- Linden AN, Kite BA, Braitman AL, Henson JM.Author information Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, 250 Mills Godwin Building, Norfolk, VA 23529-0267, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.AbstractProtective behavioral strategy (PBS) use is associated with less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related problems. Further, greater endorsement of social or enhancement drinking motives (i.e., positive motives) is associated with less frequent PBS use. Limited research has, however, explored coping or conformity motives (i.e., negative motives) in relation to PBS. Consequently, the present study aimed to (1) identify the types of PBS most strongly associated with negative and positive motives and (2) examine different types of PBS as mediators of the relationship between each drinking motive and alcohol outcomes. Participants were college students (n=303; 70% women) who completed measures of drinking motives, PBS, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that greater endorsement of positive drinking motives were more strongly associated with less frequent use of PBS while drinking whereas negative motives were more strongly related to less frequent Alternatives to Drinking strategy use. Further, strategies used while drinking were more relevant in a model of positive drinking motives and Alternatives to Drinking strategies were more relevant in a model of negative motives. These findings may suggest that whereas individuals with stronger positive motives have difficulty using strategies while drinking, individuals who drink to cope or conform have greater difficulty utilizing Alternatives to Drinking strategies. Based on our results demonstrating that different types of PBS are more relevant for various types of drinkers, it may be important for future interventions to discuss not only the participant's PBS use but also their motivations for consuming alcohol.
- Addictive behaviors.Addict Behav.2014 Feb;39(2):469-72. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.008. Epub 2013 Oct 9.
- Protective behavioral strategy (PBS) use is associated with less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related problems. Further, greater endorsement of social or enhancement drinking motives (i.e., positive motives) is associated with less frequent PBS use. Limited research has, however, explored c
- PMID 24229844
- Variation between Self- and Mutual Assessment in Animal Contests.
- Mesterton-Gibbons M, Heap SM.Author information Department of Mathematics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306.AbstractAbstract Limited resources lead animals into conflicts of interest, which are resolved when an individual withdraws from a direct contest. Current theory suggests that the decision to withdraw can be based on a threshold derived from an individual's own state (self-assessment) or on a comparison between their own state and their opponent's (mutual assessment). The observed variation between these assessment strategies in nature does not conform to theory. Thus, we require theoretical developments that explain the functional significance of different assessment strategies. We consider a hawk-dove game with two discrete classes that differ in fighting ability, in which the players strategically decide on their investment toward mutual assessment. Analysis of the model indicates that there are simultaneous trade-offs relating to assessment strategies. First, weak individuals in a population must decide on whether to acquire information about their opponents at the cost of providing opponents with information about themselves. Secondly, all individuals must decide between investing in mutual assessment and being persistent in contests. Our analysis suggests that the potential for individuals to make errors during contests and differences in the consequences of sharing information within a population may serve as fundamental concepts for explaining variation in assessment strategy.
- The American naturalist.Am Nat.2014 Feb;183(2):199-213. doi: 10.1086/674443. Epub 2013 Dec 24.
- Abstract Limited resources lead animals into conflicts of interest, which are resolved when an individual withdraws from a direct contest. Current theory suggests that the decision to withdraw can be based on a threshold derived from an individual's own state (self-assessment) or on a comparison bet
- PMID 24464195
- 知的障害概念の成立過程に関する研究 －ヘバー定義の成立およびその意義と特徴－
- シミズ サダオ,タマムラ クニヒコ,清水 貞夫,玉村 公二彦,SHIMIZU Sadao,TAMAMURA Kunihiko
- 奈良教育大学紀要（人文・社会科学） 63(1), 67-76, 2014-11-30
- … They are (a) attenuated general intellectual functioning, (b) subnormal level in adaption behavior which refers to a person's ability to live independently, to hold a job, and to conform to the social standards of the community, (c) developmental period. …
- NAID 120005515407
- 北京パラリンピック50m平泳ぎ金メダリストに対する競技力向上のための取り組み : ロンドンパラリンピックに向けて
- 藤谷 光順,桜井 伸二
- 障害者スポーツ科学 12(1), 33-42, 2014-06-30
- … Suggestions for the athletic performance improvement derived from the motion analysis were as follows: (1) increase stroke length and decrease stroke rate, (2) conform stroke motion in non-breath stroke to the motion in on-breath stroke, and (3) decrease drag force in recovery phase, and shorten stroke length of right arm in late in-sweep phase. …
- NAID 110009862960
- 小原 洋,前島 勇治,高田 裕介,大倉 利明,レオン 愛,池羽 正晴
- ペドロジスト 58(1), 17-29, 2014-06-30
- 茨城県つくばみらい市の水田土壌3断面について,断面形態,理化学的性質,土壌分類を検討した。3土壌断面は関東平野中部における沖積低地の代表的な地形系列上に位置し,自然堤防近くのA断面では集積層の発達しつつある褐色低地土が認められ,中間部のB断面では水田化作用が進みつつある灰色低地土,台地縁近くのC断面は地下水の影響を受けたグライ化灰色低地土が認められた。A,B両断面とも灌漑水湿性の特徴である鉄集積層 …
- NAID 110009841757
- Specimen- and grain-size dependence of compression deformation behavior in nanocrystalline copper
- Okamoto Norihiko L.,Kashioka Daisuke,Hirato Tetsuji,Inui Haruyuki
- International Journal of Plasticity 56, 173-183, 2014-05
- … The critical (D/d)∗ values determined for nanocrystalline Cu pillars with d = 360 and 100 nm increases with the decrease in grain size so as to conform to the same power law scaling obtained for coarse-grained Cu polycrystals. …
- NAID 120005434967
- conformとは。意味や和訳。[動](自)［I（[副]）］1(1) 〈人が〉（規則・慣習などに）従う, 順応 する((to ...))Drivers must conform.
- to give the same shape, outline, or contour to : bring into harmony or accord < conform furrows to the slope of the land>. intransitive verb. 1. : to be similar or identical; also : to be in agreement or harmony —used with to or with <changes that ...
- conform - WordReference English-Japanese Dictionary.
- lucifer, friction match
- 合う、びったりする、フィットする。(～に)収まる(into)。調和/適合する(in, with)。
- accord, accordance, adequate, adequately, adjust, agree, agreement, apply, apt, coincide, coincidence, concert, concerted, concordance, concur, concurrent, conform, conformity, congruence, congruent, consensus, consistent, consonant, correspond, correspondence, corresponding, instrument, match, matching, proper, suit, true, unanimous, unity, wear
- come after
- travel along
- 応諾する(to)、同意/賛同する(to, with, in)。合意に達する、折り合いがつく(about, on)