出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』「2013/01/28 00:15:55」(JST)[Wiki en表示]
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- 1. エンドセリンと腎臓 endothelin and the kidney
- 2. 小児におけるステロイド抵抗性特発性ネフローゼ症候群 steroid resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children
- 3. 離人症性障害：疫学、病因、臨床症状、経過、および診断 depersonalization disorder epidemiology pathogenesis clinical manifestations course and diagnosis
- 4. I群抗不整脈薬の主な副作用 major side effects of class i antiarrhythmic drugs
- 5. ヌクレオシド系逆転写酵素阻害剤の薬理学 pharmacology of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
- Joint toxicity of heavy metals and chlorobenzenes to pyriformis Tetrahymena.
- Zhang T1, Li X2, Lu Y3, Liu P3, Zhang C4, Luo H3.Author information 1Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, PR China; College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China.2Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, PR China. Electronic address: email@example.comDepartment of Chemistry, School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, PR China.4School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, PR China.AbstractChlorobenzens and heavy metals are frequently detected in the environment, but few studies have assessed the joint toxicity of organic and inorganic contaminants. The joint toxicity of heavy metals and chlorobenzenes was evaluated in the present study. Growth metabolism of the joint toxicity was studied by microcalorimetry at 28°C, the growth constant (k) and inhibitory ratio (I) were calculated. Toxic unit (TU) and additional index (AI) were introduced to determine the outcome in combined tests, and the coexistence of Cu, Cd, Cr(III) and p-chlorobenzene was antagonism, and the effect of Cu, Cd, Cr(III) and o-chlorobenzene, Cu and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were synergism. In addition, micro-situation of the cell membrane surface of pyriformis Tetrahymena was observed by SEM. The cells suffered serious damage after sufficient acting time. ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that amide groups and PO2(-) of the phospholipid phospho-diester, both in the hydrophobic end exposed to the outer layer, were the easiest to be damaged.
- Chemosphere.Chemosphere.2014 Jun;104:177-83. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.11.012. Epub 2013 Nov 28.
- Chlorobenzens and heavy metals are frequently detected in the environment, but few studies have assessed the joint toxicity of organic and inorganic contaminants. The joint toxicity of heavy metals and chlorobenzenes was evaluated in the present study. Growth metabolism of the joint toxicity was stu
- PMID 24290295
- Context-Dependent Antagonism between Akt Inhibitors and Topoisomerase Poisons.
- Gálvez-Peralta M1, Flatten KS, Loegering DA, Peterson KL, Schneider PA, Erlichman C, Kaufmann SH.Author information 1Divisions of Oncology Research (M.G.-P., K.S.F., D.A.L., K.L.P., P.A.S., S.H.K.) and Medical Oncology (C.E.), Department of Oncology and Department of Molecular Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics (S.H.K.), Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota.AbstractSignaling through the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which is aberrantly activated in >50% of carcinomas, inhibits apoptosis and contributes to drug resistance. Accordingly, several Akt inhibitors are currently undergoing preclinical or early clinical testing. To examine the effect of Akt inhibition on the activity of multiple widely used classes of antineoplastic agents, human cancer cell lines were treated with the Akt inhibitor A-443654 [(2S)-1-(1H-indol-3-yl)-3-[5-(3-methyl-2H-indazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl]oxypropan-2-amine; ATP-competitive] or MK-2206 (8-[4-(1-aminocyclobutyl)phenyl]-9-phenyl-2H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-f][1,6]naphthyridin-3-one;dihydrochloride; allosteric inhibitor) or with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) along with cisplatin, melphalan, camptothecin, or etoposide and assayed for colony formation. Surprisingly different results were observed when Akt inhibitors were combined with different drugs. Synergistic effects were observed in multiple cell lines independent of PI3K pathway status when A-443654 or MK-2206 was combined with the DNA cross-linking agents cisplatin or melphalan. In contrast, effects of the Akt inhibitors in combination with camptothecin or etoposide were more complicated. In HCT116 and DLD1 cells, which harbor activating PI3KCA mutations, A-443654 over a broad concentration range enhanced the effects of camptothecin or etoposide. In contrast, in cell lines lacking activating PI3KCA mutations, partial inhibition of Akt signaling synergized with camptothecin or etoposide, but higher A-443654 or MK-2206 concentrations (>80% inhibition of Akt signaling) or PDK1 siRNA antagonized the topoisomerase poisons by diminishing DNA synthesis, a process that contributes to effective DNA damage and killing by these agents. These results indicate that the effects of combining inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt pathway with certain classes of chemotherapeutic agents might be more complicated than previously recognized.
- Molecular pharmacology.Mol Pharmacol.2014 May;85(5):723-34. doi: 10.1124/mol.113.088674. Epub 2014 Feb 25.
- Signaling through the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which is aberrantly activated in >50% of carcinomas, inhibits apoptosis and contributes to drug resistance. Accordingly, several Akt inhibitors are currently undergoing preclinical or early clinical testing. To examine the ef
- PMID 24569089
- Neonatal exposure to MK-801 reduces mRNA expression of mGlu3 receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex of adolescent rats.
- Uehara T1, Sumiyoshi T, Rujescu D, Genius J, Matsuoka T, Takasaki I, Itoh H, Kurachi M.Author information 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Toyama Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama, Japan.AbstractSchizophrenia is considered as a "neurodegenerative" and "neurodevelopmental" disorder, the pathophysiology of which may include hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) or subsequent pathways. Accordingly, administration of NMDA-R antagonists to rodents during the perinatal period may emulate some core pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. The effect of 4-day (postnatal day; PD 7-10) administration of MK-801, a selective NMDA-R antagonist, on gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, and amygdala was evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Specifically, we sought to determine whether genes related to Glu transmissions, for example those encoding for NMDA-Rs, metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs), or Glu transporters, were altered by neonatal treatment with MK-801. Model rats showed downregulation of the mGluR3 subtype in the mPFC around puberty, especially at PD 35 in response to MK-801 or during ontogenesis without pharmacological manipulations. Genes encoding for other mGluRs subtypes, that is NMDA-Rs and Glu transporters, were not affected by the neonatal insult. These results suggest that NMDA-R antagonism in the early course of development modulates the expression of mGluR3 in mPFC around puberty. Thus, mGluR3 may serve as a potential target to prevent the onset and progression of schizophrenia. Synapse 68:202-208, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Synapse (New York, N.Y.).Synapse.2014 May;68(5):202-8. doi: 10.1002/syn.21734. Epub 2014 Feb 19.
- Schizophrenia is considered as a "neurodegenerative" and "neurodevelopmental" disorder, the pathophysiology of which may include hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) or subsequent pathways. Accordingly, administration of NMDA-R antagonists to rodents during the perinatal period
- PMID 24549941
- Anatomical specificity in the modulation of activity-regulated genes after acute or chronic lurasidone treatment.
- Luoni A1, Rocha FF1, Riva MA2.Author information 1Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, I-20133 Milan, Italy.2Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, I-20133 Milan, Italy; Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan, I-20133 Milan, Italy. Electronic address: M.Riva@unimi.it.AbstractLurasidone is a novel second generation antipsychotic drug characterized by a multi-receptor profile. Besides the high affinity for 5-HT2A and D2 receptors, it is also characterized by potent 5-HT7 receptor antagonism, which may be beneficial for mood and cognition. Considering that dose-dependent changes in receptor occupancy may differentially impact gene transcription, we aimed at investigating the effects of acute and chronic treatments with different doses of lurasidone (1, 3 and 10mg/kg) in rats on the expression of the activity-regulated genes Arc, Zif268 and Npas4, which are markers of neuronal activation and are also associated with neuroadaptive mechanisms. Our results show dose-dependent and anatomically-selective differences after acute and chronic lurasidone treatment. Indeed, the effects produced by acute treatment seem to reflect the modulatory activity of lurasidone at selected neurotransmitter receptors. In fact, low doses of the drug acted in the hippocampus, while high doses acted in the striatum, reflecting the high predominance of D2 receptor expression in this brain region. On the contrary, chronic treatment with lurasidone revealed a different profile of IEGs modulation, possibly reflecting neuroadaptive changes set in motion in response to repetitive drug exposure. In summary, the multi-receptor profile of lurasidone leads to the recruitment of different brain structures in a dose-related manner and this may be important for its therapeutic properties, particularly with respect to antidepressant activity and cognition.
- Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry.Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry.2014 Apr 3;50:94-101. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.12.008. Epub 2013 Dec 18.
- Lurasidone is a novel second generation antipsychotic drug characterized by a multi-receptor profile. Besides the high affinity for 5-HT2A and D2 receptors, it is also characterized by potent 5-HT7 receptor antagonism, which may be beneficial for mood and cognition. Considering that dose-dependent c
- PMID 24361635
- ラディカル・デモクラシー理論のメディア学への応用 : ラクラウとムフの言説理論とメディア・言説空間の競合的複数性
- 日高 勝之
- 立命館産業社会論集 49(3), 13-31, 2013-12
- NAID 40019944844
- SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE RESPONSE TO RESTRAINT STRESS DURING THE VULNERABLE PERIOD IN NEWBORN RATS
- Tokunaga Jun,Sato Shinichi,Kanbayashi Takashi,Imanishi Aya,Sagawa Yohei,Sato Masatoshi,Sakai Noriaki,Nishino Seiji,Shimizu Tetsuo
- 秋田医学 40(2), 89-103, 2013-11-21
- NAID 110009658221
- Repression of Tropolone Production and Induction of a Burkholderia plantarii Pseudo-Biofilm by Carot-4-en-9, 10-diol, a Cell-to-Cell Signaling Disrupter Produced by Trichoderma virens
- Wang Mengcen,Hashimoto Makoto,Hashidoko Yasuyuki
- Plos one 8(11), 2013-11-04
- … Methodology/Principal Findings: To reveal the antagonism by T. …
- NAID 120005365919
- 田中 静枝,池内 佳子
- 母性衛生 54(2), 275-285, 2013-07
- 本研究はHands-offテクニックでの母乳育児の支援の効果を,栄養状況や母親の感情について,従来のHands-onと比較し,育児の自信を高める効果的な母乳育児支援であるかを明らかにすることを目的とした。初産婦82名を対象に3つの尺度を使用し,質問紙で妊娠中・入院中・1ヵ月の3時期に縦断的に調査した。結果,有効回答率57.9% (Hands-on群19名, Hands-off群25名)において, …
- NAID 110009624950
- It's not a problem of hostility or antagonism, it's more of a problem of indifference. The antagonism of the past spills over into present-day disputes. Scholars trace the nation's antagonism to its history of domination by foreign powers. ...
- antagonismとは。意味や和訳。[名][U][C]1 （…に対する）敵意，反目，敵対；対立((to, toward ...))racial antagonism人種的反目antagonism between the two men2人の間の反目in antagonism with [to] ...…と反目[対立]して，に ...
- Full Definition of ANTAGONISM 1: opposition in physiological action; especially: interaction of two or more substances such that the action of any one of them on living cells or tissues is lessened 2 a: opposition of a conflicting ...