HIV infection

出典: meddic


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出典(authority):フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』「2015/05/14 22:52:46」(JST)

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  • Interferon Gamma Release Assays in the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Among Immunocompromised Adults.
  • Redelman-Sidi G, Sepkowitz KA.SourceMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, New York, New York, United States ;
  • American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine.Am J Respir Crit Care Med.2013 Dec 21. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Immunocompromised persons with latent tuberculosis infection are at increased risk for tuberculosis reactivation compared to the general population. Tuberculin skin test, the traditional assay for diagnosing LTBI (latent tuberculosis infection), has reduced accuracy in immunocompromised patients. In
  • PMID 23262514
  • HIV takes double hit before entry.
  • Sanders RW.SourceLaboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • BMC biology.BMC Biol.2013 Dec 7;10:99. doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-10-99.
  • In the absence of a vaccine or a cure, identification of novel HIV-1 inhibitors remains important. A paper in Retrovirology describes a rationally designed bi-specific protein that irreversibly damages the viral envelope glycoprotein complex via a two-punch mechanism. In contrast to traditional drug
  • PMID 23216951
  • Promoting immunity during chronic infection-The therapeutic potential of common gamma-chain cytokines.
  • Toe JG, Pellegrini M, Mak TW.SourceThe Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Molecular immunology.Mol Immunol.2013 Nov;56(1-2):38-47. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2013.04.008. Epub 2013 May 14.
  • The continued global burden wrought by chronic infectious disease is unrelenting. Current therapies have curbed the severity of disease for patients, but Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B (HBV) infection remain incurable and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is rapidly becoming resis
  • PMID 23685259


  • Chronic hepatitis B and C co-infection increased all-cause mortality in HAART-naive HIV patients in northern Thailand
  • Tsuchiya Naho,Pathipvanich Panita,Rojanawiwat Archawin,Wichukchinda Nuanjun,Koga Ichiro,Koga M.,Auwanit Wattana,Kilgore Paul Evan,Ariyoshi Koya,Sawanpanyalert Pathom
  • Epidemiology and Infection
  • … A total of 755 highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive HIV-infected patients were enrolled at a government hospital in Thailand from 1 June 2000 to 15 October 2002. … HBV and probably HCV co-infection was associated with a higher mortality with adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of 1·81 (95% CI 1·30-2·53) and 1·90 (95% CI 0·98-3·69), respectively. … Interestingly, HBV co-infection without anti-HBc Ab was strongly associated with death (aHR 6·34, 95% CI 3·99-10·3). …
  • NAID 120005326901
  • Harnessing the CRISPR/Cas9 system to disrupt latent HIV-1 provirus.
  • Ebina Hirotaka,Misawa Naoko,Kanemura Yuka,Koyanagi Yoshio
  • Scientific reports 3, 2013-08-26
  • … Even though highly active anti-retroviral therapy is able to keep HIV-1 replication under control, the virus can lie in a dormant state within the host genome, known as a latent reservoir, and poses a threat to re-emerge at any time. … However, novel technologies aimed at disrupting HIV-1 provirus may be capable of eradicating viral genomes from infected individuals. … In this study, we showed the potential of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit the HIV-1 genome and block its expression. …
  • NAID 120005324896
  • HIV感染経路に関する知識とエイズに対する否定的態度(衣笠忠司教授退任記念)
  • 大澤 裕美佳 / 池上 知子
  • 人文研究 64, 133-148, 2013-03-00
  • NAID 120005266495


厚生労働省「HIV検査相談体制の充実と活用に関する研究」班による全国のHIV・エイズ・性感染症の検査・相談窓口情報サイト ... HIVの感染確率は、感染経路やコンドームの使用の有無等により変わりますが、コンドームを使わないで ...



拡張検索asymptomatic HIV infection」「acute HIV infection



HIV infection
HIV後天性免疫不全症候群 AIDS
  • HIVに感染しただけではAIDSを発症しないことに注意!!!!



  • 血清学的手法でウイルスが検出できるのは6-8週間経ってから
  • 血清学的手法でウイルスが検出される前、感染後2-4週以内に20-50%の感染者は急性症状を呈する。


also see HIM.1174
  • 口腔病変:カンジダ、単純ヘルペスウイルス
  • 食道病変:カンジダ
  • 消化管病変:サイトメガロウイルス腸炎(AIDSに進展した患者の5-10%に見られていたが、HAARTの導入により一般的ではなくなりつつある(HIM.1175))、偽膜性腸炎(抗菌薬を投与されたHIV感染者が下痢を訴える場合、鑑別に入れるべき疾患。ある研究では、下痢を訴えるHIV感染者における細菌性の病原体のうちClostridium difficileが54%を占めたという(参考1))



  • HIV抗体の検出
  • 擬陽性:多産の女性、血液疾患(白血病、多発性骨髄腫)、膠原病、原発性胆汁性肝硬変、原発性硬化性胆管炎、アルコール肝炎、DNAウイルス感染症、HIVワクチン
  • 偽陰性:感染直後、末期で抗体産生不全


  • スクリーニングするのはHIV感染症の有病率が0.1%以上の集団(MMWR 2006 55(RR-14):1
  • 日本の有病率は0.02%であるので対象をリスク因子の集団に行う
  • MSM、静脈注射の違法薬物使用者、多数のパートナーとの無防備な性交渉、commercial sex worker、他のSTI感染症


  • HIV抗体の存在を証明する。所管腺から6-12週で陽転する。  ← 抗体が検出されるころにはRNAは一旦減少に向かっている印象
  • スクリーニング検査:ELISA法、PA法
  • 確定診断:ウェスタンブロット法、IFA法/蛍光抗体法


  • 1. [charged] Evaluation of the HIV-infected patient with diarrhea - uptodate [1]




acquired immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immune deficiency syndrome, AIDS
HIV日和見感染症、濾胞AIDS濾胞、HIV infection感染症法
  • 五類感染症の全数把握対象疾患である。診断した場合、七日以内その者の年齢、性別その他厚生労働省令で定める事項を最寄りの保健所長を経由して都道府県知事に届け出なければならない。

asymptomatic HIV infection」


acute HIV infection」




  • n.
contagioninfectinfectious diseaseinfestationtransmissiontransmit

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「(medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease」

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「(phonetics) the alteration of a speech sound under the influence of a neighboring sound」

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「the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms」

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「(international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure」

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「moral corruption or contamination; "ambitious men are led astray by an infection that is almost unavoidable"」

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「an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted」
contagion, transmission

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「〈U〉(病気の)伝染;感染 / 〈C〉伝染病」



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「the 8th letter of the Roman alphabet」

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「鉛筆の硬度 / 《俗》heroin」


  [★] human immunodeficiency virus HIVウイルス ヒト免疫不全ウイルス

WordNet   license wordnet

「infection by the human immunodeficiency virus」


  [★] 赤血球凝集抑制試験

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