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- 1. 美容適応としてのボツリヌス毒素投与の概要 overview of botulinum toxin for cosmetic indications
- 2. 小児における志賀毒素産生性大腸菌（STEC）溶血性尿毒症症候群（HUS）の治療および予後 treatment and prognosis of shiga toxin producing escherichia coli stec hemolytic uremic syndrome hus in children
- 3. 美容適応としてのボツリヌス毒素：特定部位治療 botulinum toxin for cosmetic indications treatment of specific sites
- 4. 非神経性の下部尿路症状の治療におけるボツリヌス毒素の使用 use of botulinum toxin for treatment of non neurogenic lower urinary tract conditions
- 5. アカラシアに対する空気圧式拡張術とボツリヌス毒素注入 pneumatic dilation and botulinum toxin injection for achalasia
- Management of sialorrhoea in motor neuron disease: A survey of current UK practice.
- Hobson EV, McGeachan A, Al-Chalabi A, Chandran S, Crawley F, Dick D, Donaghy C, Ealing J, Ellis CM, Gorrie G, Hanemann CO, Harrower T, Jung A, Majeed T, Malaspina A, Morrison K, Orrell RW, Pall H, Pinto A, Talbot K, Turner MR, Williams TL, Young CA, Shaw PJ, McDermott CJ.Author information Sheffield Institute for Translational Neuroscience, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, & Academic Directorate of Neurosciences, Royal Hallamshire Hospital , Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust , Sheffield.AbstractOur objective was to better understand UK-wide practice in managing sialorrhoea in motor neuron disease among specialist clinicians. We used a survey of neurologists in the UK with a special interest in motor neuron disease designed to establish clinicians' attitudes towards treatment options and resources for sialorrhoea management. Twenty-three clinicians replied, representing 21 centres. Sixteen centres were specialist MND Care Centres. Clinicians estimated seeing a total of 1391 newly diagnosed patients with MND in 2011. One hundred and ninety-three patients were described. Forty-two percent of patients reviewed in clinicians' last clinic had sialorrhoea and 46% of those with sialorrhoea had uncontrolled symptoms. Clinicians' preferred drugs were hyoscine patches, amitriptyline, carbocisteine and botulinum toxin. Botulinum toxin was used in 14 centres. Risk of dysphagia and staff skills were identified as the main barriers to botulinum toxin use. This survey suggests that there may be as many as 1700 patients with MND in the UK who have symptoms of sialorrhoea and that symptoms may be poorly controlled in nearly half. Treatment strategies varied, reflecting the lack of evidence based guidelines. The use of specialist treatments was influenced by local infrastructure. This study highlights the need for further work to develop evidence based guidance.
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration.Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener.2013 Dec;14(7-8):521-7. doi: 10.3109/21678421.2013.790452. Epub 2013 May 7.
- Our objective was to better understand UK-wide practice in managing sialorrhoea in motor neuron disease among specialist clinicians. We used a survey of neurologists in the UK with a special interest in motor neuron disease designed to establish clinicians' attitudes towards treatment options and re
- PMID 23647474
- Bacteriophages as pathogens and immune modulators?
- Lengeling A, Mahajan A, Gally DL.Author information The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.AbstractWhile Shiga toxins (Stx) are key determinants of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) pathophysiology in humans, their dissemination to target organs following gastrointestinal EHEC infection is still poorly understood. Most types of Stx target cells with globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptors, which are expressed on endothelial cells. According to current theory, Stx is trafficked on the surface of peripheral blood cells, and transfer of toxin from these trafficking cells to endothelial cells results in microvascular damage to target organs, including the kidneys and brain. Inside the cell, Stx inhibits protein synthesis, resulting in cell death. Host "repair" responses can lead to microthrombus formation, erythrocyte damage, and reduced oxygen supply, potentially resulting in organ failure. A recent study [L. V. Bentancor et al., mBio 4(5):e00501-13, 2013, doi:10.1128/mBio.00501-13] indicates that another mechanism for Stx "dissemination" needs to be considered. Bentancor et al. demonstrated that high-pressure injection of a plasmid encoding the "prokaryotic" Stx2 sequence into mice can lead to mortality, with pathology indicative of Stx activity and antibody responses to Stx. While the plasmid levels and injection methodology were extreme, the study indicates that these sequences are potentially taken up into eukaryotic cells, transcribed, and translated, producing active Stx. Stx genes are present on integrated bacteriophage genomes in EHEC, and Stx-encoding phages are released following bacterial lysis in the gastrointestinal tract. We therefore need to consider whether bacteriophage sequences can be expressed in eukaryotic cells, what the wider implications are for our understanding of many "bacterial" diseases, and the possibility of developing novel interventions that target bacteriophages.
- mBio.MBio.2013 Nov 12;4(6):e00868-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00868-13.
- While Shiga toxins (Stx) are key determinants of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) pathophysiology in humans, their dissemination to target organs following gastrointestinal EHEC infection is still poorly understood. Most types of Stx target cells with globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptors,
- PMID 24222490
- The function of the conserved regulatory element within the second intron of the mammalian Csf1r locus.
- Sauter KA, Bouhlel MA, O'Neal J, Sester DP, Tagoh H, Ingram RM, Pridans C, Bonifer C, Hume DA.Author information Developmental Biology, The Roslin Institute, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, United Kingdom.AbstractThe gene encoding the receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1R) is expressed exclusively in cells of the myeloid lineages as well as trophoblasts. A conserved element in the second intron, Fms-Intronic Regulatory Element (FIRE), is essential for macrophage-specific transcription of the gene. However, the molecular details of how FIRE activity is regulated and how it impacts the Csf1r promoter have not been characterised. Here we show that agents that down-modulate Csf1r mRNA transcription regulated promoter activity altered the occupancy of key FIRE cis-acting elements including RUNX1, AP1, and Sp1 binding sites. We demonstrate that FIRE acts as an anti-sense promoter in macrophages and reversal of FIRE orientation within its native context greatly reduced enhancer activity in macrophages. Mutation of transcription initiation sites within FIRE also reduced transcription. These results demonstrate that FIRE is an orientation-specific transcribed enhancer element.
- PloS one.PLoS One.2013;8(1):e54935. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054935. Epub 2013 Jan 31.
- The gene encoding the receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1R) is expressed exclusively in cells of the myeloid lineages as well as trophoblasts. A conserved element in the second intron, Fms-Intronic Regulatory Element (FIRE), is essential for macrophage-specific transcription of
- PMID 23383005
- 國府田 敏一
- 日本内分泌学会雑誌 7(8), 1142-1147,171, 1931
- … Farrant reported a marked hyperplasia of the thyroids in guinea pigs which were given minimum doses of diphtheria toxin.<BR>Burget experimented with the injection of streptococci in the tonsils of cats but was unable to demonstrate any noticeable changes in the thyroid glands. … The toxin for these experiments was obtained by the method described by Dick. …
- NAID 130001937013
- the erythrogenic toxin of the scarlatinal streptococcus. Origin of DICK TOXIN. after George F. and Gladys H. Dick. This word doesn't usually appear in our free dictionary, but the definition from our premium Unabridged Dictionary is offered here ...
- toxin /tox·in/ (tok´sin) a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by some higher plants, certain animals, and pathogenic bacteria, that is highly poisonous for other living organisms.
- erythrogenic toxin, ET
- ディック毒素 Dick toxin、猩紅熱毒素 scarlet fever toxin、連鎖球菌発熱毒素 streptococcal pyrogenic toxin SPT